Saturday, December 28, 2019
Grace Giardina Mr. Mark Carson HIST 2055 11 Feb 2015 Changes in the Land Essay In William CrononÃ¢â¬â¢s book Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England, he discuses the ecological history of New England from the late sixteenth century to the early nineteenth century. He demonstrates how the New Englanders changed the land by illustrating the process of the change in the landscape and the environment. In the Preface Cronon states, Ã¢â¬Å"My thesis is simple: the shift from Indian to European dominance in New England entailed important changesÃ¢â¬âwell known to historiansÃ¢â¬âin the ways these people organized their lives, but it also involved fundamental reorganizationsÃ¢â¬âless well-known to historiansÃ¢â¬âin the regions plantÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦the Natives lived was a large subject in the text and set way to shape the discussion of how the Europeans viewed and utilized resources. Their ideas of productive and consumptive use eventually made land laws come into effect, a concept that was much more European t han Native American. In comparison to the Europeans, depending on the region, a lot of Native Americans were largely migrant people who followed resources as needed. Tribes would stay in one area for as long as they could utilize whatever was in season and then moved forward once the landÃ¢â¬â¢s resources had nothing left to offer. Hunting and gathering forced tribes to relocate quite often due to the different seasonsÃ¢â¬â¢ impact on game and plants. Even though agriculture was not a reliable source of sustainability for these people, Indians often found ways to make use of whatever herbs and plants grew around them. Low environmental impact and zero waste are two very important values to Indians as they have a very spiritual connected to the earth. In other parts of the country, Indians used agriculture quite a lot and even found ways to make their crops last through the winter. Some tribes established themselves fairly prominently in one area, but a key difference between the ir establishment and the EnglishÃ¢â¬â¢s was their inherent view that no matter what they yielded from the land, it was not their property to claim forever. The Native Americans reallyShow MoreRelatedChanges in the Land Essay1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReading Worksheet William Cronon, Changes in the Land History 2110 Indians 1. How did the Indians occupy the land? The northern Indians occupied the land much differently from those who lived in the south. The land was drier in the north, and the soil not as fertile, so agriculture was not a main source of subsistence. All Indians relied greatly on mobility throughout the seasons for survival. Those in the south were able to stay in one place for longer however because of the fertilityRead MoreChanges in the Land by William Cronon Essay871 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Europeans changed the land of the home of the Indians, which they renamed New England. In Changes in the Land, Cronon explains all the different aspects in how the Europeans changed the land. Changing by the culture and organization of the Indians lives, the land itself, including the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s plants and animals. Cronon states, Ã¢â¬Å"The shift from Indian to European dominance in New England entailed important changes well known to historians in the ways these peoples organized their lives, but itRead MoreAldo LeopoldÃ¢â¬â¢S Essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Land EthicÃ¢â¬ Was Published In1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAldo LeopoldÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Land EthicÃ¢â¬ was published in A Sand County Almanac. The short paper confronts the imperfections in the most common approaches in preserving the environment. LeopoldÃ¢â¬â¢s answer is to develop a new branch of environmental ethics to model humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s ever-changing relationship with the environment. Leopold observantly describes the history of ethics, the meaning of community with the land and why itÃ¢â¬â¢s appropriate to do so. Toward the end of the essay Ã¢â¬â as the reader is ready forRead MoreA Writers Style - N. Scott Momaday Review1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHarperCollins Publishers. Throughout the essay The Way to Rainy Mountain, Momaday uses very descriptive words, which brings the places he is describing to life in the minds eye. The essay begins with his description of the homelands of his Kiowa people, which has been given the name of Rainy Mountain. The picture painted in the readers mind by these beautiful descriptions makes it easily understandable why the Kiowa people came to settle upon this land as their home. For example, part of the descriptionRead More A Writers Style Essay1219 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHarperCollins Publishers. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Throughout the essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Way to Rainy MountainÃ¢â¬ , Momaday uses very descriptive words, which brings the places he is describing to life in the minds eye. The essay begins with his description of the homelands of his Kiowa people, which has been given the name of Rainy Mountain. The picture painted in the readers mind by these beautiful descriptions makes it easily understandable why the Kiowa people came to settle upon this land as their home. For example, part of the descriptionRead MoreEssay about Sillouette779 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesloss of the land and his people. As the land begins to evaporate around him he becomes the dark shadow-like shape that once the leader of his tribe. In silhouette the setting is very important to the development of the theme. The image of change and decay is already present in the first line The sky-line melts from russet into blue from beginning the Pauline Johnson has created the image of change by placing the poem in the archetypal setting of dusk. Throughout the entire essay the landscapeRead MoreLovley Hula Hands1259 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesimpositionÃ¢â¬ towards the Hawaiian culture. Trask incorporates ethos, pathos and logos throughout her essay to show how tourism effects these three points in the Hawaiian culture: The homeland, the language and dance of the culture and the familial relationships. In the essay Lovely Hula Hands, Trask shares her emotions and thoughts with the reader about the rape and prostitution of her native land. She explains that different Hawaiian traditions werenÃ¢â¬â¢t used for entertainment purposes as they areRead More Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuel Exploration and Extraction937 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages(Haines, Kovats, Campbell-Lendrum and CorvalÃ ¡n, 2006), leading to social panic and complaints. Fossil fuelsÃ¢â¬â¢ exploration and extraction in this essay refers to an industrial process of prospecting the petrochemical resources and transferring it to consumable goods. The environmental effects of this process could be varied; this essay will focus on air pollution, land subsidence and the degradation of water quality. Initially, air pollution is considered as a negative effect of exploring and extractingRead MoreReligion Belief Systems in Australia Post 19451239 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespost 1945 Question 1: Aboriginal religion is based on land. Land is the heart of Aboriginal Dreaming and provides the assurance needed for the continuation of rituals and ceremonies (king, 2010, p.213). The effect of Dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualities related to the separation from their land was enormous and overwhelmingly detrimental. The impact of British colonisation resulted in Australia being declared terra-nullius land belonging to no-one and Aboriginal peoples were subjectRead MoreRevolutions are usually described as Ã¢â¬Å"radicalÃ¢â¬ events. A Ã¢â¬Å"radicalÃ¢â¬ event is defined as one that700 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesRevolutions are usually described as Ã¢â¬Å"radicalÃ¢â¬ events. A Ã¢â¬Å"radicalÃ¢â¬ event is defined as one that greatly changes the political, cultural, social, and/or economic nature of a society. I believe that the American Revolution was a radical event that dramatically changed our society. There were many impacts to the changes such as slavery, primogeniture, the Articles of Confederation, republican motherhood, and government. This was the time in life, that we as America gained our independence from Britain
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Learning style is the unique mode of achieving knowledge or skill through experiences or trainings. Learning style addresses the method to learning and the manner that individual learns greatest and to the characteristic method of persons interacting with the environment. Learning style lists aim to identify a student s preferred academic approach in adapting and processing knowledge. The learning style denotes to the special mode in which the learners absorbs, processes, follows and recollects knowledge. Identifying the learners as auditory, visual, or kinesthetic learners and supporting our complete curriculum with these learning styles will prove to be beneficial for whole classroom. Using a mixture of learning activities, inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Course Goals The course goal is to modify studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic performances and create a learning environment to ensure course readiness, to improve overall performance in courses, and facilitate successful completion of the course. Specific, measurable goals help in designing course and assessing its success. A goal is an overarching principle that guides decision making. The course goals are given below: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Deliberate and recognize vital competencies for clinical and organizational leadership. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Explain desired qualities and characteristics related with successful leadership strategies. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Explain the learners with several methods to leadership and its achievement. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Deliver opportunities to obtain skills required to become an active learner. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assist opportunities to increase employee inspiration. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Recognize and avoid the barriers to becoming a leader. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Improve ability to lead through reliable communication using open-ended questions, active listening, and body language. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Provide ideas on how to implement and sustain alteration. Learner Objectives A statement of what learners will be able to do when they have completed instruction is the learning objectives. The components of learning objectives are an explanation ofShow MoreRelatedIdentifying Optimal Learning Modes / Strategies761 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmoment enhance their intellect by learning and teaching; therefore, understanding and utilizing the perfect learning approaches are sine qua non. VARK is a questionnaire that helps your learning by suggesting the strategies you should be using (Fleming, 1987). Utilizing this tool can contribute people to identify optimal learning modes/strategies in order to increase the effectiveness of the study. According to Prithishkumar Michael (2014) VARK is a learning style which classifies students intoRead MoreThe Goals And Priorities Of Nurses And Inter Professional Team1608 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesusually clear, we all work from different forms of knowledge. Ã¢â¬Å"This different knowledge arises out of the unique standpoints from w hich nurses experience their work and their patientsÃ¢â¬ (Hamilton Campbell, 2011, p. 283). However, dynamics exist that can privilege some forms of knowledge while subordinating other types of knowledge. Therefore, it is essential that I develop confidence in my professional comportment, find ways to promote my knowledge, strengthen my nursing standpoint, all while workingRead MoreGlobal Business Plan Operation : Mission, Vision, And Vision Of A Team Oil1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesessential factors. The given paper provides great information in regards to organizational objectives, mission, and vision of A Team Oil (ATO) and how the identified information are helpful in its expansion while maintaining the competitive advantage. Mode of Entry Entering into new markets will give A Team Oil many opportunities to expand and grow as a company. By expanding, it opens up countless opportunities to generate more business and increase revenue. Expanding in Spain will allow the companyRead MoreQualities Of Being A Successful Leader Essay1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesme the opportunity to play on both losing and winning teams. During my collegiate football career at Auburn University, I had the very unique opportunity to witness a wide array of leadership styles. The differences that stood out to me throughout that time were extremely apparent. Some leadership styles resulted in winning records, while other leadership styles lead to excessive disappointment. This has afforded me an alternative perspective of viewing life. I have realized that even if you failRead MoreCurriculum Definition And Definition Of Curriculum2273 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesWhat is Curriculum? According to Stotsky (2012), curriculum is a plan of action that is aimed at achieving desired goals and objectives. It is a set of learning activities meant to make the learner attain goals as prescribed by the educational system. Generally, it includes the subjects and activities that a given school system is responsible for. Moreover, it defines the environment where certain learning activities take place. Furthermore, curriculum defines what happens in any formal educationalRead MoreCorporate Leadership: Opportunities Challenge Essay2656 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pageshave to be continuously learning and discovering new things, ideas, processes and systems for doing better for the firm. For this purpose, they need both far sight and foresight, in 2012, they should be focusing on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s entity in 2022 ten years hence. The leaders can, themselves, become competitive factors for gaining advantage over competitors. The leaders must be in learning mode all the time and this way t hey can create a learning organization. Leadership for learning organization has becomeRead MoreEvaluation of The IELTS Listening Test Essay example2266 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe language mainly used in the test is British English, but since itÃ¢â¬â¢s an international test candidates are allowed to use other forms of English such as American English as long as it is consistent throughout the test. Eom (2006) says that Ã¢â¬Å"the unique character of IELTS listening test is the accommodation of variety of EnglishÃ¢â¬â¢s. A range of English accents are used. Design Principles The IELTS listening test is the most important part of the test as itÃ¢â¬â¢s viewed as the vanguard of communicativeRead MoreDifferent Learning Styles of Sophomore Nursing Students of Sbc10087 Words Ã |Ã 41 PagesCHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Learning varies on each and everyone. Individuals can perceive and process information in different kinds of ways, which implies that the degree to which individuals learn has as much as to do with whether the learning experience is geared to their style of learning. Some of the individuals learn and develop easily in the early stage, while others are not. For some time now educational research exploring the issue of academicRead MoreDifferent Learning Styles of Sophomore Nursing Students of Sbc10095 Words Ã |Ã 41 PagesCHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Learning varies on each and everyone. Individuals can perceive and process information in different kinds of ways, which implies that the degree to which individuals learn has as much as to do with whether the learning experience is geared to their style of learning. Some of the individuals learn and develop easily in the early stage, while others are not. For some time now educational research exploring the issue of academic achievementRead MoreLenovo and Ibm23938 Words Ã |Ã 96 PagesAchieving Successful Cross-Cultural and Management Integration: The Experience of Lenovo and IBM By Sharona Peng AchievingÃ SuccessfulÃ CrossÃ¢â¬ CulturalÃ andÃ ManagementÃ Integration:Ã TheÃ ExperienceÃ ofÃ LenovoÃ andÃ IBM.Ã Ã Ã Ã SharonaÃ PengÃ Ã Ã AÃ thesisÃ submittedÃ toÃ AucklandÃ UniversityÃ ofÃ TechnologyÃ inÃ partialÃ fulfilmentÃ ofÃ theÃ requirementsÃ forÃ theÃ degreeÃ ofÃ MasterÃ ofÃ BusinessÃ (MBus)Ã Ã 2008Ã Ã FacultyÃ ofÃ BusinessÃ Ã PrimaryÃ Supervisor:Ã PeterÃ EnderwickÃ Ã 1 / 78 Achieving Successful Cross-Cultural
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
A History Of Rape Essay, Research Paper Amongst the ancient Hebrews, who flourished about 1000 B.C. adult females were portrayed as more sexual than work forces, and their position was inferior to that of work forces. Sexual activities were supposed to be confined to one # 8217 ; s partner, but adult females who failed to continue these regulations was dealt with more badly than those by males because adult females were considered to be adult male # 8217 ; s belongings. The Judaic jurisprudence of that clip was defined as criminal conversation, and was punishable by decease. Harmonizing to the Hebrews, criminal conversation referred merely to a married adult female # 8217 ; s sexual intercourse with a adult male other than her hubby. A adult male who had intercourse with another adult male # 8217 ; s married woman was charged merely with the misdemeanor of the hubby # 8217 ; s belongings rights. While the penalty was terrible, the adult male did non have the decease punishment, merely the adult female did. So, if a adult male committed the offense of colza ( as we know it today ) the adult female, or # 8220 ; belongings # 8221 ; , was put to decease and the adult male escaped with a terrible penalty, but non decease. The thought that adult females were belongings is besides reflected in some Old Testament views sing harlotry and colza. Because a adult female belonged to a adult male, colza was considered larceny. A adult male who raped the girl of another adult male could shrive the state of affairs by either paying the male parent, or get marrieding the girl. It wasn # 8217 ; t a offense for a male parent to sell sexual entree of his girl to other work forces. However, if a adult female chose to hold sexual dealingss with other work forces, and deprived her male parent of the fee, she committed a capital offense! This discourtesy could ensue in the girl of an ordinary citizen being stoned to decease. If the girl of a priest committed such an discourtesy, the priest could bespeak t he girl to be put to decease by fire. Girls who had sex ( or raped ) before the age of 12 had their penalty postponed until their 12th birthday, at which they were so stoned to decease. In 1486, two German theologists, Sprenger and Kramer published a book called Malleus Maleficarum which diagnosed processs of placing witchery. Of these processs a adult female was susceptible to witchcraft because of her animal ( sexual ) lecherousness. This book expressed the dangers of adult females # 8217 ; s lecherousness and their moral depredations. Because of this on turning fright of the temptations and evil # 8217 ; s of a adult female # 8217 ; s gender in the fifteenth and 16th centuries, the effort to # 8220 ; salvage # 8221 ; the community took the signifier of enchantress Hunts. A male could, hence # 8220 ; take # 8221 ; a adult female, and because the people of this clip period believed that the adult female was evil with her seductions, the consequence of today # 8217 ; s offen se of sexual assault would ensue in her decease and the adult male # 8217 ; s cleaning of the psyche. In the 19th century, when the Industrial Revolution created a in-between category, the functions of males and females began to go detached. The ruling sexual ideals of this clip was called Victorianism. During this clip period adult females were expected to be inactive and emotional and to concern themselves merely with their proper topographic point, the place. In contrast to the center ages where adult females lured work forces to perpetrate wickedness, in the 19th century the incrimination for lecherousness was straight put on work forces. It was during this period that a adult female # 8217 ; s morality, gustatory sensation, and feelings were more developed than work forces. Therefore, the development towards today # 8217 ; s sexual assault Torahs began to turn. Men get down to go more apt for their functions in sexual assault towards adult females. The Victorian epoch was so influential that until late many adult females attempted to conceal their sexual involvement and worried about # 8220 ; animalistic # 8221 ; feelings. During the first portion of the century, work forces believed that it took alot of attempt to pursuade a adult female to hold sex, and that it took more work to acquire her aroused and orgasmic. The Kinsey group and Masters and Johnson helped, through their research, to partly switch these positions. Today, in some circles, females are seen as sexual, and some argue that females are more capable of sexual response than males are. Masters and Johnson suggest that adult females are more sexual than work forces because of their ability to hold multiple climaxs. We have non wholly escaped the early clip beliefs where adult females were thought to hold charming powers over work forces because of adult females # 8217 ; s seductiveness. For illustration, the stating # 8220 ; a adult female # 8217 ; s intuition # 8221 ; gives the thoug ht that adult females # 8217 ; s power of perceptual experience exceed those of work forces. The thought that adult females provoke colza by luring work forces beyond their capableness to command themselves # 8211 ; a belief that degrades both adult females and work forces # 8211 ; is still accepted by many modern-day North Americans. Today, every province in the United States has a jurisprudence against sexual assault or colza, yet the specific definition of the offense varies. In fact, in 1974 Michigan became the first province to do a colza reform jurisprudence that was intended to extinguish the century old myths and legal tra ditions that were applied to the offense of colza. Since 1974, all 50 provinces have modified their sexual assault Torahs. The reforms include the undermentioned ends: 1 ) To increase the likeliness of describing assault, every bit good as the apprehension and strong belief rates. 2 ) To do the legal criterion for sexual assault consistent with those for other offenses. 3 ) To increase control over determinations made in the criminal-justice system. 4 ) To protect victims from take downing intervention during colza tests by restricting cross- scrutiny. 5 ) To sensitise and educate society about the position and rights of adult females. There are many provinces that do non utilize the term colza any longer because of it # 8217 ; s intension of forced penile-vaginal incursion. The term sexual assault is now used so that it implies coercive sexual contact. Many provinces have besides re-written their Torahs so that the footings are gender-neutral and can do the wrongdoer to be either male or female. Finally, matrimonial position has been stricken as a defence against sexual assault. My sentiment of the development from the ancient Hebrews to today # 8217 ; s sexual assault Torahs is that adult females as victims have surely come a long manner! Womans are now able to do an call when the offense of sexual assault occurs, and have the agencies to which they can convey the culprit ( if found ) to justness. However, colza tests can be every bit humiliating as the sexual assault itself. With this in head, unluckily many adult females choose non to even talk of the incident. In my sentiment, the construct of males being victims of sexual assault has brought today # 8217 ; s society back to the times of the ancient Hebrews. It seems that the functions of males v. females have # 8220 ; flip-flopped # 8221 ; and it is now the sentiment that males can non be raped. I believe this to be really untrue. In fact, in the Arab states, when a individual is caught irrupting in a hareem the individual is turned over to slaves to be used for their sexual pleasance. Rape of confined soldiers in war is common among the Arabs, Persians, Greeks, an d Romans. This tradition, that has been around for centuries, continues harmonizing to the International Commission of Geneva. In the Middle East Americans arrested on drug charges are chained by the mortise joint to a bed in prison and are left there for 24 hours to be raped by inmates. In America, Judgess often sentence immature first clip wrongdoers to a really short prison term, such as 30 to 90 yearss, followed by five or more old ages probation. One must inquire when this is done if the justice hasn # 8217 ; t sent the felon to prison merely long plenty to be raped before he is released. One could see how this tactic would surely discourage a condemnable from future offense! These signifiers of colza of males are used as penalty. There are many ways for work forces to be raped, and it # 8217 ; s a fact, even though many people in the U.S. garbage to believe that it could happen. Even though there are many alterations that could be made, I believe the alterations from the anc ient Hebrews, to the Victorian epoch and the Industrial Revolution to today have been for the better. For the work forces nevertheless, I am loath to believe they feel the same. I believe the jurisprudence was the manner it was because of society # 8217 ; s readings of the bible during scriptural times. Women was considered subservient to work forces hence adult females were considered adult male # 8217 ; s belongings. It would look merely natural in society # 8217 ; s position, during those periods that adult females could non claim sexual maltreatment. I believe that the jurisprudence throughout history has changed as a consequence of society # 8217 ; s altering reading of faith, the Victorian and Industrial period ( where adult females # 8217 ; s functions became more profound ) , to the adult females # 8217 ; s motion which demanded equality. To an exceeding grade biass against adult females have been reduced since scriptural times, a force that I believe is surely a facto r in the development from which adult females were considered enchantresss to the term sexual assault. The inquiry of what alterations may be necessary to better today # 8217 ; s sexual assault Torahs may include some of the undermentioned suggestions: 1 ) Continuing instruction on the offense of sexual assault through the usage of prime-time telecasting commercials, and docudramas. 2 ) Continuing instruction through the usage of wireless. 3 ) Alternatively of cyberspace # 8220 ; pop-ups # 8221 ; , which seem to be an irritation that we can # 8217 ; t seem to acquire rid of, use the # 8220 ; pop-ups # 8221 ; for community instruction alternatively of being used to lure aberrant sexual behavior. 4 ) Stress that work forces can be victims, every bit good as adult females, of sexual assault. 5 ) Encourage victims of sexual assault to describe sexual assault discourtesies. 6 ) Educate the populace of their rights against the misdemeanor of sexual assault and guarantee the victims that humiliation is non directed at the victim, the accused is the focal point of humiliation. 7 ) Make # 6 a pattern, for Judgess to uphold, in all courtrooms.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
The Traffic Conjestion Problem In Sri Lanka Tourism Essay Paper Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean in South Asia, 65 610 square kg metres in country, divided into nine administrative states where population of about 21 million in 2009. The state measures about 400 kilometres from North to South and 250 kilometer from East to West. The entire length of roadway in Sri Lanka is 112,603 kilometer in 2009. The figure of vehicles in Sri Lanka in 2009 is 2,245,108. By 1948, when Sri Lanka became independent, there were about 11,000 kilometers of roads, of which about 7,000 kilometers were paved. Sri Lanka has a route web of approximately 112,603km, consisting about 11,760 kilometers of national roads ; 15,743 kilometer of provincial roads ; 80,600 kilometer of local authorization roads ; and 4,500 kilometer of roads owned or controlled by irrigation, wildlife, and land development governments. These national main roads comprise roads that are categorized as Class A and B roads, the highest classs in Sri Lanka s route hierarchy. Provincial roads are categorized as Class C, D, and E roads. While the capacity of local and rural roads has been expanded since 1948, most of the bole roads day of the month back to pre-independence old ages and their capacity has become unequal owing in portion to neglected care. Road conditions are by and large hapless. We will write a custom essay sample on The Traffic Conjestion Problem In Sri Lanka Tourism Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Traffic Conjestion Problem In Sri Lanka Tourism Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Traffic Conjestion Problem In Sri Lanka Tourism Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Roadss are the spinal column of the conveyance sector in Sri Lanka. They are important for the motion of people and goods and play a critical function in incorporating the state, easing economic growing, and finally cut downing poorness. National roads are keeping over 70 per centum of the traffic in Sri Lanka. Roadss are really of import for the big bulk of Sri Lanka s people who live in the small towns. They are frequently the lone manner for most rural people to make necessary services such as infirmaries, schools, markets, and Bankss, which are largely situated far from their small towns. 1.2 Problem Background The installation of smooth traffic motion is an decoration every bit good as an plus to any metropolis. But capital metropolis of Sri Lanka is confronting a large job with traffic job. Traffic job has aggravated by the attending of all signifiers economic, commercial and administrative maps in the metropolis. The metropolis of Colombo attracts about 1.5 Million drifting population on a on the job twenty-four hours and with the add-on of the resident population in the metropolis. The entire population in the metropolis increases to more than 2 Million during the daylight. It is estimated that approximately 50 % of the transposing population arrives in the metropolis for employment or to link in commercial activities and or to go to educational establishments. The remainder comes to the metropolis for assorted other intents. Commuting population are used assorted signifiers of transit to come in the metropolis. Both the figure of vehicles and the riders come ining the City are increasing twelvemonth by twelvemonth. Traffic congestion is often increasing as more and more people buy vehicles. At the same clip the residential population and the ownership of vehicles within the metropolis bounds will besides see a singular growing. Vehicles are come ining to the City from 9 entry points on working yearss have been estimated to be about 275,000, and this is in add-on to the part to the traffic floor by the usage of vehicles of the occupants in the metropolis. The combination of these facets outcome is a greater attractive force of the metropolis for people from the remainder of the state therefore worsening the conveyance job in the metropolis of Colombo. 2. Reasons for traffic congestion The figure of vehicles in the metropolis is non the lone factor that contributes to congestion. There are several other grounds for this traffic congestion. 2.1 The current traffic signal web A signal operation system is indispensable to route efficiency. There are so many traffic circles and hamlets where no traffic signals are installed in every topographic point. These topographic points are celebrated for traffic blocks since many automobilists and walkers do non follow the prevalent regulations. Pedestrians are crossed roads without regular intervals and utilizing manus signals. It seems that the current traffic signal web in Colombo is deficient to keep monolithic sums of traffic volume. 2.2 The current route system Massive main roads, many Bridgess, and tunnels can non be found all over the state like South Korea. Most of the roads are little and narrow.The conditions and criterions of the roads are unequal to run into quickly turning cargo and rider traffic. More than 50 % of the national roads have hapless or really hapless surface status and many are earnestly congested. The range for widening roads on bing alliances is limited chiefly because of land acquisition issues. 2.3 Inadequate investing Despite the significant additions in traffic volume at that place have been unequal investings for building of new main roads or broadening and bettering bing roads. Over the past old ages the investing in the route sector has been chiefly determined on the rehabilitation of the bing route web. 2.4 Mixed traffic system National main roads, which are by and large two-lane, has been unable to transport the current volume of assorted traffic ( walkers, motorcycles, coachs, three-wheelers, and motor vehicles ) . Increasing traffic volumes and a traffic mix consisting of motorised and non-motorized traffic have resulted in low travel velocities, terrible traffic congestions, and increased accident rates. 2.5 Street sellers There are illegal buildings and street sellers are making their concerns in waysides. In most roads passage through waysides is obstructed by these street sellers. Uncontrolled wayside development and concerns has reduced the capacity of the route web. 2.6 Illegal parking Illegal parking significantly contributes to congestion and impedes the traffic flow. Cities suffer in Sri Lanka from unenforced drive and parking ordinances. Although Vehicles parking in waysides is illegal in the state most of automobilists are parking their vehicles in waysides ground for that is restriction of parking topographic points. 2.7 Sidewalks for walkers In capital metropolis, most of roads have constructed without pavements for walkers. When walkers are walking side on the route the bing roads have translated to as narrow roads. 3. Datas analysis In this portion has concerned about most relevant informations in connexion with traffic congestion. Although South Korea has provided more installations for their conveyance system they besides are possessed job with congestion. In South Koreans has enjoyed with many main roads, Bridgess, tunnels, and express ways in connexion with their conveyance system. In sing about traffic congestion can be considered as population, no of vehicles, no of accident and no of individuals killed in accident are the most of import factors. In the undermentioned information has been attending about compare information with South Korea and Sri Lanka. 3.1 Population The following table no 1 and figure no1 has included information about population in thousand in two states. Table no 1.Population in two states Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sri Lanka Population ( 1000 ) 18,713 18,797 18,921 19,173 19,462 19,668 19,886 20,010 20,156 20,303 South Korea population ( 1000 ) 47,008 47,357 47,622 47,859 48,039 48,138 48,297 48,456 48,607 48,747 Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka www.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10 Figure no 1.Population in two states Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka www.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10 When sing about this information South Korea population is higher than Sri Lanka ground for that Sri Lanka is a little state than South Korea. 3.2 No of registered vehicles Other most of import factor is no of registered vehicles in these two states. In table no 2 and 3 are provided entire no of vehicles in two states. Table no 2. No of registered vehicle in South Korea Year Registered Vehicle ( 1000 ) Increasing Rate ( % ) 2001 12,910 7.1 2002 13,950 8 2003 14,590 4.6 2004 14,930 2.4 2005 15,400 3.1 2006 15,900 3.2 2007 16,430 3.4 2008 16,790 2.2 Beginning: www.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10 Table no 3. No of registered vehicle in Sri Lanka Year Registered Vehicle ( 1000 ) Increasing Rate ( % ) 2001 1,779 2002 1,892 6.3 2003 2,074 9.7 2004 2,298 10.8 2005 2,527 10 2006 2,828 12 2007 3,126 10.5 2008 3,391 8.5 Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka Figure no 2.Registered vehicles in South Korea Beginning: www.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10 Figure no 3.Registered vehicles in Sri Lanka Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka In comparing with 2001 the no of vehicles has increased in 30 % twelvemonth 2008 in South Korea. There are 91 % important increase in Sri Lanka comparison with 2001 and 2008. Although degree of increased of entire no of vehicles in both states has decreased it is really important in 2004 in South Korea. 3.3 Traffic Accident in South Korea In the undermentioned tabular arraies and figures have been discussed about traffic accident volume and how many people killed by route accident in both states. Table no 4.Traffic Accident in South Korea Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Traffic Accidents Volume 290,481 260,579 230,953 240,832 220,755 214,171 213,745 211,662 251,822 Person Killed 10,236 8,097 7,090 7,212 6,563 6,376 6,327 6,166 5,870 Beginning: www.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10 Table no 5.Traffic Accident in Sri Lanka Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Traffic Accidents Volume 54,250 52,092 55,031 59,494 53,458 42,537 35,763 33,993 31,872 Person Killed 1992 1952 2029 1933 2116 2236 2238 2402 2328 Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka Figure no 4. Traffic Accident in South Korea Beginning: www.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10 Figure no 5. Traffic Accident in Sri Lanka Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka Although traffic accident volume has been decreased up to 2007 there is a considerable increase in 2008 in South Korea. In comparing with 2007, the traffic volume has been increased in 19 % in the twelvemonth 2008. In sing about Sri Lanka information the highest accident volume has been reported in twelvemonth 2003.The sum is 59,494 accidents. After 2003, there are noteworthy decreased in the traffic volume of Sri Lanka. When concerned about no of killed individual in accident there are large different with two state. Although in South Korea the no of killed individual in accident has been decreased twelvemonth by twelvemonth the Sri Lanka state of affairs is different. There has been reported a important increase about no of individual killed in accident. 4. Solutions for jobs 4.1 Traffic signal web To react traffic congestion in capital metropolis must be established new traffic signals in every traffic circle, cross route and necessary topographic points. It will be appreciable affected to cut down traffic congestion. The traffic signal web is established in 100 % in the developed states and many of other states. 4.2 Improve route substructure. It is necessary to build a modern route web, and upgrade bing roads to run into the state s economic and societal development demands. In add-on to the demand for bettering and rehabilitating deteriorated roads, there is an pressing demand to ship on a plan for the building of new intercity main roads. In sing about route substructure should concern about pavements and illegal buildings. It will be helped to ease more route infinite to the automobilist on the route. 4.3 Private sector investing The Government has limited capacity to finance public investings. Advanced funding schemes particularly private sector investing will be needed to mobilise sufficient support for such main roads. Using these financess can be improved route care and building and do route development sustainable. The authorities should advance private sector engagement in route substructure betterment. 4.4 Transport Planning and Coordination. Transport sector duties in Sri Lanka have been widen over a battalion of ministries and bureaus, taking to a extremely disconnected construction of decision-making. At present there are nine ministries with a direct duty for conveyance substructure. When taking determinations sing route substructure it have been affected for all these governments. In the past decennaries, many determinations have non match and there are besides large statement about these determinations. The Sri Lankan authorities should take necessary stairss to set up one establishment from garnering these all relevant establishments to supply a better conveyance services. 5. Policy execution 5.1 A national policy sing traffic signal The traffic signals will assist to better traffic flow on roads. These stairss would guarantee less traffic congestion and traffic accidents compare with old state of affairs. 5.2 Private investing Harmonizing to current state of affairs in the state, authorities should believe a national policy sing private investing on the route substructure. Lack of finance state of affairs in the authorities, this measure will be helped to authorities to better the route substructure in the state. 5.3 Reduce responsible establishments In present there are several establishments in sing route conveyance. It would non be good to taking the determinations. In sing that, can be arrange these all establishments under one policy sing the route transit. 6. Decision The efficiency of Sri Lanka s conveyance sector has blocked by a assortment of restraints. Sri Lanka depends on foreign trade and it can be increased by efficient conveyance web in the state. Globalization of trade has risen non merely from the liberalisation of trade, but besides from major progresss in communications, conveyance, and storage engineerings. On clip bringing of merchandises and riders has become a consequence of good transit web. For travel of people and transit of factors of production, semi-finished goods, and manufactured merchandises will necessitate efficient conveyance services. After following effectual and efficient policies sing transit web can be achieved a better conveyance web in the state.