Saturday, September 21, 2019

Immigration In America

Immigration In America Immigration played a very important role in American history and is perhaps one of the greatest controversial issues of our present time. There are many sides to immigration, and no matter where you are from, most views on immigration are saddening. Most immigrants lead lives that the rest of us only read about in books. Something that we must remember is that at one time in our history, American encouraged relatively open immigration to settle its empty lands before the era of rapid communications and transportation. Mexicos relationship to the United States has a long history. In 1835 Texas, then Mexican territory, declared its independence and ten years later was annexed to the United States. After that came the U.S.-Mexican War. When it was over, the U.S. had acquired half the land that once belonged to Mexico, including all or parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming. With the land, the United States of course got Mexicans, many of them. The California Gold Rush brought in more, and others came later, lured by the prospect of making a better living here. Sometimes the Mexicans were invited, as they were during World War II by a treaty that allowed an unlimited number of temporary workers to fill agricultural jobs here. By the end of the program in 1964, more than 4.5 million Mexicans had come to work temporarily in the United States, far exceeding the number of permanent legal immigrants. Legal immigration, which had also increased steadily over the years, was eventually checked. But illegal immigrants, without having to cross an ocean to get there as did immigrants from Europe and Asia, started pouring in at the rate of hundreds of thousands a year. By the early 1980s, some 55 percent of all undocumented immigrants in the U.S. came from Mexico, accounting for an estimated two-thirds of all Mexican immigration. The U.S. government has cracked down over the years. It has erected barbed wire fences and high metal walls along the long border. It has raided businesses that purposely employ illegal workers in order to pay lower wages. Some of these businesses degrade the immigrant. They make them work endless hours and they do not pay overtime. They offer no insurance benefits and they allow them to live in very poor living conditions. Most of the immigrants do not know their rights. But still the immigrants come, sometimes risking their lives to cross the guarded borders, and when they do, most manage to keep their ties to their families in Mexico, something that few other immigrant groups can do. Immigration has lasted for many decades and to this day it shows little sign of slowing down. Immigrants come into the United States from all over the world. They come in for reasons such as to gain a better or higher education. Some come in seeking their fortune. Most immigrants come in to the United States because they have nothing, and only want to be able to survive. This is especially true for Mexican immigrants because of their countrys poverty. The United States became a poor Mexicans protection, his escape hatch, his alternative to the submission expected of him in the Old World. This may jar Americans who see the rough lives many immigrants leadà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦To the man who departs pesoless yet returns with cash to spend, the United States affords dignity, respect, and sweet vindication. 1. Sam Quinones, Antonios Gun and Delfinos Dream. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007), 8. Not every man that leaves their county to seek a better life in the United States of America is able to fulfill their dream. This may be because some U.S. companies may contribute unwittingly to the exploitation of foreign workers. According to an article written in Business Week by Steve Hamm and Moira Herbst, In some cases companies target young men and women hungry to get well-paid tech jobs in the United States and charge them with exorbitant fees for visas, which is not allowed under American immigration laws. Even after paying, some workers never get a visa; those who do may find that the company they paid has no job for them. 2 Steve Hamm and Moira Herbst, Business Week: Americas High-Tech Sweat Shops, (The McGraw-Hill Companies, October 12, 2009), p. 034. Those immigrants that go back to Mexico to leave their families money and gifts are demonstrating to their people some of the American ways. Millions of money is transported from the U.S. into Mexico every year by illegal immigrants. Yet there are those times when law enforcers humiliate the immigrants by taking their belongings away from them. They take their hard earned money and the immigrants are deported, going home with nothing to show and penny-less as before. Then there are those that not only take their belongings, but also abuse them. The book Tangled Destinies: Latin America The United States by Coerver and Hall, talks about many incidents dealing with immigration. Two particular incidents really caught my attention. This is what I read, Two incidents in 1996 brought the tensions over illegal immigration, particularly from Mexico, into high relief. On 1 April 1996, Riverside County sheriffs deputies in southern California were videotaped beating two unresisting illegal al iens, while others scattered, after an hour-long, high-speed chase. One was a woman, Alicia Sotero Vasquez, who was dragged by her hair out of the pickup in which the illegals had been riding. Clearly ill and terrified, she appeared on television the next day with the Mexican consul to protest her treatment. Latino protests in Los Angeles accelerated through the week, culminating but not ending in a 6,000-person protest march in downtown Los Angeles on April 7. He two aliens brought suit against the County, later settling for $740,000. 3 Don M. Coerver, Linda B. Hall, Tangled Destinies: Latin America The United States, (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1999), p. 214. The second incident involved seven migrants that were killed in an accident. They were assumed planning to evade the Border Patrol and instead had a taste of bad luck and ended up in a ditch. In neither of these two cases were the victims immediately identified, when to begin with the victims in both ca ses were supposed to have been smugglers that the Border Patrol was searching for. Unfortunately the real smugglers got away while innocent people were brutalized and some even killed. The question is, Could this have been prevented if handled differently by law officers? The Mexican migrant, also known as a Wetback, who only violates the immigration law does not consider himself a criminal or lawbreaker. He is playing a game, trying to outwit the authorities, in hopes of bettering himself. To be sure the stakes are high (his survival), but there are few sanctions. If he stays clear of the drug traffic, stealing, drunkenness, fighting, etc., that is if he does not violate local, state, or other federal laws, the worst that can happen to him when apprehended is a trip to the closest detention center. He is held there for a short period of time and then he is taken back to Mexico. This procedure seems a rather inconvenience because, more than likely, the immigrant heads for the United States once again, in hopes of returning to his job. Knowing the life in the U.S. as compared to the one in Mexico will keep him going back, regardless of the inconvenience. Becoming a wetback has been more the role of the male, since it entails long journeys, working with groups of men, hard labor, and a dangerous undertaking. A small percentage of the aliens who are apprehended are women and children. Unskilled women can work in a variety of jobs in agriculture, as dishwashers in restaurants, as hotel maids, as housemaids, or in custodial jobs. Nevertheless; they are most likely treated like the slaves of our history. Why would any individual in Mexico want to play this game? Many times they learn of commuters and they hear the exaggerated stories about the wealth of the United States, the jobs available, the high wages and the ease of crossing the border. It is not difficult to comprehend the poverty-induced desperation which will compel a man to endure whatever hardship and humiliation in order to be able to obtain a few pesos for the sheer survival of his family and himself. Most wetbacks understand that they will not be successful. But when one is at the bottom of the social heap, there is no place or position below. This leaves people with hope. Hope that they can hold on to a job without official detection. Many wetbacks have high aspirations. Some talk of saving money to buy land back in Mexico. Others seek to buy a car and go into the taxi business. Some wetbacks may allow themselves to be apprehended by border patrol agents because they feel that the United States prisons offer more than the poor rural areas in which they reside. Once they are apprehended though, they realize that they have to commit a crime or violate deportation regulations in order to actually be imprisoned. The results, they commit a crime and hope to get caught. Once in prison in the United States, they are provided with medical care, adult education classes, good clothes, warm and fairly comfortable living accommodations, and three meals per day. It is also possible for a prisoner to work in one of several occupations and send a check home to the family. In his book, Immigration: Opposing Viewpoints, Marcus Eli Ravage writes that Immigrants cannot easily become part of the American culture. He writes about living conditions that are degrading to immigrants and about the never ending hours of labor that immigrants work in sweatshops or on the streets. They pay high rent as if they were paying for extravagant apartments, yet this is not the case. 4 Marcus Eli Ravage, Immigration: Opposing Viewpoints. (San Diego: Greenhaven Press), l992. This book has different viewpoints on immigration. Lets look at illegal immigration in a different prospective. Yes, it is human to feel sadness for the migrant that is only trying to survive. Many of us Americans are doing the same thing. Some of us multitask with two and even three jobs. Some of us are lower-class American citizens, yet others are even classified below that, which is poverty. Look at the many single-parent families in America. These families, when facing tragedys such as divorce, fall from one class to another in a matter of days. What about the many Americans being laid off? They are losing their homes, and have to completely change their lifestyles. Some are working jobs they never before thought they would. For the many families in crisis in America, life for them is similar to the lives that most migrants have to face. Sometimes the only difference is that we are American citizens, and they are not. Another issue is that in which a migrant is hired for a job before an American because of the ability for the employer to pay lower wages, and be okay with it. Most migrants accept what is offered, as long as they are able to provide for their families. This causes ill feelings towards Americans that are also trying to provide for their own families. Sometimes people have immigrant women cleaning their houses for very low wages, and when those employees are no longer with them, they find it hard to pay higher wages to the U.S. citizen willing to do the job. Who is in the wrong? People have different opinions about issues such as these. Many say that America is supposed to be the land for ALL people. What happens when there are more people than there are resources, such as in Africa where people are dying of starvation? There is not enough medicine for everyone so people are dying of many illnesses. This is not what America wants to happen. Yet there are millions of immigrants coming into the United States. Yes, some become legal immigrants in time. But do they abide by our laws? Do they make an effort to learn the English language? Or do they tell you they do not speak English. It seems that they want to be here so bad yet they do not care to learn the language. An article in the USA Today, July 30, 2010 issue talks about the problems that the state of Arizona is encountering as a consequence of illegal immigration. A retired Army sergeant says that when he approaches Spanish-speaking grocery store clerks in his hometown of Buckeye, near Phoenix, they rarely help him. They reply, No Ingles. 5 Alan Gomez and Kevin J ohnson, USA Today, Friday, July 30, 2010. 3A. Many states feel that the federal government is not controlling the illegal immigrants coming into the states. They feel that as a result our schools are overcrowded. There is much more violence in our cities, and states are facing economic and environmental problems. 6 USA, 3A. Is it time to put a stop to this ongoing situation that has worsened throughout the years? An Arizona Republican Governor, Jan Brewer definitely believes that the problem must be addressed. Jan Brewer is taking the immigration crisis in Arizona into her own hands. A new immigration law, the Arizona SB 1070 law, requires police to check the immigration status of people they lawfully stop and suspect are in the country illegally. Other states have immigrant laws as well. Colorado restricts undocumented immigrants from receiving in-state tuition. Nebraska requires verification of immigration status to obtain public benefits. There are hundreds of immigration-related laws on the books across the United States that regulate employment, law enforcement, education, benefits and health care, but Arizonas strict new law has generated the most controversy. As a result many people have been arrested for protesting and causing chaos in Arizona. According to the El Paso Times, The U.S. Department of Justice filed a lawsuit to stop the Arizona law from taking effect on July 29, saying that immigration policy is a national responsibility and a patchwork of state laws will only create more problems than it solves. 7 El Paso Times, June 18, 2010, 4A. But according to experts, that is precisely what exists. During the first three months of 2010, lawmakers introduced more than 1,000 bills and resolutions, though it is too early to tell how many will become law. Bills on topics such as employment verification and drivers license requirements are on the table in 45 states. Legislators in five states-South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Rhode Island and Michigan-have introduced similar bills to Arizonas SB 1070. 8 El Paso Times, 4A. Many believe that because of the federal governments negligence to face immigration responsibilities the states are scrambling. States have a long history of enacting immigration laws. In 1996, after Congress denied welfare to most legal immigrants, states stepped in with laws to provide safety-net services. After the September 11 attacks, state lawmakers passed bills aimed at protecting national security. People were concerned about dangerous immigrants in their midst and thought they should take matters into their own hands. The increase in state laws parallels the changing settlement patterns of undocumented immigrants. Between 1990 and 2008, illegal immigration slowed significantly in California but grew in Georgia, North Carolina and other states because those states are not the typical immigrant-receiving states and therefore are not accustomed to having large immigrant populations. Because of this Arizona law, undocumented immigrants who decide to leave the United States because of increasing enforcement and decreasing job prospects now face one more obstacle: the threat of arrest and deportation by border officers inspecting outbound traffic. When illegal immigrants are detected trying to leave the country, they are not just ushered across the line. Instead, their information is entered into a database before they are allowed to return to Mexico. 9 The Arizona Republic, Aug.3,2010. The objective is not to deter illegal immigrants who want to leave America but to catch those who have criminal records or are involved in smuggling. Round the clock screening of southbound traffic is being conducted by officials. The scrutiny is designed to catch smugglers delivering currency and firearms to Mexican cartels. Immigrants coming into the United States for the purpose of doing illegal activity will have to face consequences. Arizonas climate is scorching hot and almost unbearable in the summer. Temperatures may go up to the 120s, especially in the desert. Whatever the temperature, people are still making the attempt to get into the United States, but more than ever, people are risking their lives to return home, regardless of the heat. Associated Presss Amanda Lee Myers writes that The number of deaths among undocumented immigrants crossing the Arizona desert from Mexico is soaring so high this month that the medical examiners office that handles the bodies is using a refrigerated truck to store some of them. 10Associated Press, July 18, 2010. Myers writes that Dr. Bruce Parks, a medical examiner in Pima, Arizona has stated that his office, which handles immigrant bodies from three counties, is storing 250 immigrant bodies from July 1 to July 15.11 Associated Press, 4A. Authorities believe the high number of deaths are likely due to above-average and unrelenting heat in southern Arizona this month and on going tighter border security that pushes immigrants to more re mote, rugged and dangerous terrain. KOAT TV meteorologist Joe Diaz reported in mid July that Tucsons average nighttime lows in the first 15 days of July are the hottest for that period in recorded history. What is our President doing about this new Arizona immigration law? President Obama told the nation that he wants a nationwide immigration law. He wants immigration reform and says that Arizona has taken a step in the wrong direction. President Obama gave a speech on immigration on July 1, laying out his case for bipartisan immigration reform and calling out Republicans for uniformly opposing an initiative some of them supported when it was proposed by President Bush. The only thing Arizonas law will produce is chaos: Obama was right to take particular notice of the extremism of Arizona, says The New York Times in an editorial.12 The New York Times, July 2, 2010. The Times goes on to state, Its deeply unjust immigration law isnt just an invitation to racial profiling, but also a usurpation of federal authority and a prelude to the chaos that will ensue if different states have different immigration rules. Obamas right that illegal immigration cant really be handled in a piecemeal fas hion, says The Denver Post in an editorial, but that doesnt just apply to states taking the law into their own hands. Thanks in part to Arizonas law, the already overworked federal courts that handle immigration law are about to drown in cases. For border enforcement to work, Obama needs to hire more judges. Hasty immigration politics leaves courts overwhelmed. 13 The Denver Post, July 2, 2010. Obama warned of a patchwork of immigration laws arising as states and localities go their own ways. Barack Obama says he does not approve or oppose the boycotts that some cities and groups have called for in response to the Arizona law, which makes it a crime under state law to be in the country illegally. He reaffirmed his opposition to the law, saying its the wrong approach. He has asked the Justice Department to review the law to determine whether it violates civil liberties. Obama says he will continue to push lawmakers to work on a bipartisan approach to comprehensive immigration reform. Immigration played a very important role in American history, and like I stated before, it is perhaps one of the greatest controversial issues of our present time. Yes, I will continue to feel saddened by the experiences that so many people live. My belief is that we are all created equal and we all come from the heavens above, but unfortunately the world is different for all of us, and not always are we all free to live our lives as we choose. I do not care for the drug trafficking taking place, nor do I care for the violent crimes being committed by so many immigrants. I do believe that the federal government has allowed this to happen over the years. If Americas lax immigration system would come to an end and instead enforce its immigration laws with not only consistency but also common sense, America would be a safer place for all of us. For the immigrants crossing the border, sufficient law enforcement is the only way to keep them from entering the United States. For those immigrants coming in by sea or air, we must have strict policies and we must make sure that the people working at entry points do their jobs in assessing the security needed to keep illegal migrants from entering the U.S. Airport inspectors, no matter what delays they may be encountering, must carefully examine visas before stamping their approval. They must request required documentation, regardless of the hassle it may involve. As Americans, we do not want our country to become like Africa, with so many people that it cannot provide for them. We want to have plenty of resources, and we want to live freely, as our country is The Land of the Free. End Notes Alan Gomez and Kevin Johnson, USA Today, Friday, July 30, 2010. 3A Ibid.,3A. Associated Press, July 18, 2010, 1A. Ibid., 1A Don M. Coerver and Linda B. Hall, Tangled Destinies: Latin America and the United States, (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press), 1999. Kevin Kiley, The Arizona Republic, August 3, 2010. Marcus Eli Ravage, Immigration: Opoosing Viewpoints. Viewpoint 2. (San Diego: Greenhaven Press), 1992. Ramon Bracamontes, Immigration, El Paso Times, June 18, 2010, 4A. Ibid., 4A Sam Quinones, Antonios Gun and Delfinos Dream, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press), 2007. Steve Hamm and Moira Herbst, Americas High-Tech Sweatshops, Business Week. October 12, 2009, Pages 34-39. The Denver Post, July 2, 2010. The New York Times, July 2, 2010.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Windows NT security summary :: essays research papers

Winders NT Security NT was introduced in 1993 and quickly became a popular platform for client-server environments. NT is based on 32-bit architecture so it provides many features like multi-tasking, resource sharing and high availability of resources. NT provides increased security over older operating systems like Windows 9x and UNIX.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  NT has both server and client versions. The client version of NT does not have as many features or capability. The Server version can handle 256 connections while client version can only do one. Global security management functions are not supported by client version either.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  NT gives an administrator the ability to control user accounts and groups. Domains are used to contain machines in groups. This can be used as an administrative tool to control users privileges and access to system resources and data. It can also be useful for updating and stuff like that. One machine in a domain is set as the controlling system and from that machine a security policy can be created and enforced on the entire domain. Backup domain controllers are recommended. Machines on a domain share a user database which allows a user to have a single ID and easily sign on to any machine as long as its in the domain. NT uses the ideal of trusted domains. If a user authenticates to his primary domain, he is free to access any other sub domains as long as that domain trusts the primary domain. (Pass through validation) Domain trusting allows for a user who does not have an ID on a given domain to still gain access to it as long as the user is validated on the primary domain, however, what permissions the user has is dictated by the Admin of the domain he is a guest in. Domains make it easier to control users, machines, and what goes on. It is useful in enforcing policies on groups and restricting the rights of users. Security issues are minimized in remoter applications because there is no need for someone at each site to be in charge of security and policy enforcement. One Admin can group remote sites into their individual domains and provide increased security from his desk. User accounts come in both local and Domain flavors. This means a user can be restricted to using only the local machine or any machine on the domain. NT has a guest account, recommended password protecting it.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Hamlet, why did he delay Essay -- essays research papers fc

William Shakespeare, perhaps the greatest playwright of all time, authored a number of works consisting of sonnets, comedies, and tragedies. In his brilliant career, Shakespeare created literary works of art. What makes Shakespeare unlike any other writer of his time, is his ability to organize a realistic plot, manage themes, and develop characters within his works (Nordling). As well, Shakespeare's ability to provoke feeling and reaction to his writing is also what sets him apart from other common writers. Of his works, Hamlet is perhaps the most studied and most interesting of the collected tragedies. In this play, many question the actions of the characters and particularly the actions of Hamlet. The answer to: 'Why does Hamlet delay in avenging the death of his father?' is one that is not easy to identify. Possible conclusions include the role of others in Hamlet, Hamlet's religious nature, or even Hamlet's tragic flaw as a hero in Hamlet. It is often argued that Hamlet was written as a tragedy of the human spirit (Nighan). Others argue that it is a tragedy of destiny, or the hero. In every hero's quest for the truth, none is more apparent than that of Hamlet. This search for truth is born of the passing of young Hamlet's father. It is at the critical moment of revelation by the Ghost of Hamlet that young Hamlet is destined for revenge. Although the concept of revenge may be considered an evil justice, it is evident that the importance lay within the context of carrying out the fate. The question arises of 'Why did Hamlet not take revenge sooner upon Claudius?' The how and when of this vengeance becomes critical in the development of Hamlet the character. To fully comprehend the true essence of Hamlet as a son, a discoverer, and a destroyer, one must analyze each individual characteristic as revealed by Shakespeare (Nordling). It was not enough that Shakespeare just wrote the play, he also emphasized the character's thoughts and emotions through the soliloquies. In fact, the whole idea of drama is to feel, to an extent, what the character feels. However, in Hamlet, the use of the soliloquy offers the audience a gateway into the minds of the characters, and in this case it provides various reasons why Hamlet delays in exacting revenge. The depth of thought possessed by characters is easily measured by how effortlessly a reader can relate to what is b... ... three parts coward--I do not know Why yet I live to say, "this thing's to do", / Sith I have cause, and will, and strength, and means, / To do't...." (Shakespeare 41-46) Rational thought and compassion are what make Hamlet a hero. Unfortunately, thought and inability to act on impulse, are the factors in creating the tragedy in Hamlet. In today's society and its values, Hamlet continues to be a contribution to ideals of value and morality. This story of a man and his downfalls should be considered an asset to the better of society, and a lesson learned in compassion for other. BIBLIOGRAPHY Burton, Philip. â€Å"The Sole Voice.† "Character Portraits from Shakespeare." The Dial Press, New York. January 6, 2005. <> Eliot, T.S., "Hamlet and His Problems", The Athenaeum, No. 4665, London 1919. January 6, 2005 Nighan, Raymond. â€Å"HAMLET AND THE DAEMONS: AN INQUIRY INTO THE NATURE OF THE GHOST AND ITS MISSION.† Shakespeare. January 6, 2005 Nordling, Carl. â€Å"Why does Hamlet tarry?† Shakespeare: Who wrote Hamlet and why? January 6, 2005. Shakespeare, William. â€Å"Hamlet.† Hamlet. January 6, 2005

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

A Good Man is Hard to Find Essay -- Literary Analysis, Flannery OConn

A brilliant storyteller during the mid-twentieth century, Flannery O'Connor wrote intriguing tales of morality, ethics and religion. A Southern writer, she wrote in the Southern Gothic style, cataloging thirty-two short stories; the most well known being â€Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find.† Mary Flannery O'Connor was born on March 25, 1925, in Savannah, Georgia. Raised in her mother's family home in Milledgeville, Georgia, she was the only child of Regina Cline and Edward Francis O'Connor, Jr. Although little is known about Mrs. O'Connor's early childhood, in Melissa Simpson's biography on O'Connor, Simpson states that O'Connor attended St. Vincent's Grammar School in Savannah where she would rarely play with the other children and spent most her time reading by herself. After fifth, grade, O'Connor transferred; to Sacred Heart Grammar School for Girls; some say the reason for the transfer was that it was a more prestigious school than the former. She later enrolled in Peabody High School in 1938, entered an accelerated program at Georgia State Collge for Women in the summer of 1942, and in 1946 she was accepted into the Iowa Writer's Workshop at the University of Iowa (4 Simpson). According to American Decades, O'Connor earned her masters degree from the University of Iowa with six short-stories that were published in the periodical Accent (n pg Baughman). After college, O'Connor's writing career continued. During her brief career as a writer, O'Connor contracted lupus in which she ultimately died. In Short Stories for Students, Kathleen Wilson states that while O’Connor was writing her first novel Wise Blood, which she started while attending the prestigious Yaddo writers’ colony, she suffered her first attack of lupus, a chronic, ... ...Grandmother† (O’Connor 179). The Grandmother’s deviousness and immorality is evident in the beginning of the story. While reading the newspaper article about the Misfit, the Grandmother brings it to Bailey’s attention. In Short Story Criticism, Mary Jane Schenck writes â€Å"For Bailey, the newspaper story is not important or meaningful, and for the Grandmother it does not represent a real threat but is part of a ploy to get her own way† (Schenck 220). â€Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find† begins with an innocent road trip, however, due to coercion by the Grandmother; it soon turns into a fatal nightmare. In Short Story Criticism, Martha Stephens writes â€Å"†¦ it is true that in a trivial sense everything that happens is the Grandmother’s fault†¦Ã¢â‚¬  She continues with â€Å"It is in the conscious of the Grandmother that we continue to experience the action of the story†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Stephens 196).

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Employee Relations Activities

Employee relations activities are those whose objective is to create an atmosphere of trust, respect and cooperation. The typically objective is to provide an atmosphere in which all employees can perform their jobs to the best of their abilities and creatively contribute to the organization. All Human resources decisions should by goal – directed. Consequently, employee relations activities should be designed and managed to help achieve specific objectives. Employee relations activities affect efficiency, in that potential reasons for performance problems are confronted and help is offered to remove them. When the problem is an individual employee†s behavior, employee assistance and conflict resolution system seek constructive solutions. If the problem is the organization†s behavior, employee management committees or other two – way communication forums can identify possible changes that will remove the problem. Much employee relations is designed to send the message that the organization is a concerned institution that will help protect, assists, and deal fairly with all it members. The typical decisions that managers face in designing employee relations programs include: Communication – How best can we convey our philosophy to employees and solicit their opinions/suggestions on work issues? Protection – Are there aspects of the workplace that threaten the wellbeing of employees? Assistance – How shall we respond to special needs of specific employees? Cooperation – To what extent should decision making and control be shared? Discipline and conflict – How shall we deal with it? An employee handbook is a necessary part of communication an employee relations program. The handbook sets out the rules and policies within which employees and managers must operate. How the organization sets wages, allocates training, and promotions opportunities, what services it provides, and what it expect from employees is discussed in the handbook. Obviously, merely writing a handbook is not enough. It must by continuously updated, publicized to employees, and supervisors must be thoroughly familiar whit it, since they are the ones who translate policy into action. Handbook provide communication in only one direction. Many organizations have formats for providing communication from employees to supervisors and managers. These can range from â€Å"speak – up† and open – door policies, work improvement suggestions systems, to â€Å"sensing† sessions, opinion surveys, or conflict resolution procedures. Unfortunately, there is evidence that there is a growing communications gap between employees and top management. Messages that managers think they are sending aren†t being received by employees. Every managers and employee wants a healthy and safe work environment. Prevention programs take many forms. They include redesigning jobs to diminish hazardous conditions, conducting, safety training programs, even offering pay bonuses for good safety records. Safety hazard: are those aspects of the work environment, which have the potential for immediate and sometimes violent harm to employee. Examples are lost of hearing, or eyesight, cuts, sprains, bruises, broken bones, burns and electric shock. Health hazard: are those aspects of the work environment that slowly and cumulatively lead to deterioration of an employee†s health. Typical causes include physical and biological hazards, toxic and cancer – causing dusts and chemicals, and stressful working conditions. Many of the policies and programs discussed in this chapter can go a long way to prevent discipline issues from arising. Prevention should be the objective of all organizations. However, when problems arise, having procedures in place to deal with infraction can help safeguard the rights of all concerned. There are four elements to assure adherence to generally acceptable work rules of such a system.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Misc-En-Scene Sin City

For my essay on mise-en-scene, I will be talking about Sin City, written and directed by Frank Miller, Robert Rodriquez and Quentin Tarantino. In this film, there are many unique techniques used by the directors to portray emotions, hidden meanings and to determine mood. Sin City is a bold and brutal adaptation of the graphic novels written by Frank Miller. Mise-en-scene is a cinematic term, which refers to techniques used by directors to help construct a specific onscreen representation. It consists of the setting of the film, costume and make up, lighting, staging, and last of all, time and space. The scene that I will be analyzing would be the scene in which Marv confronts Cardinal Roark and forces him to confess, after which Marv kills him. Marv, a brute of a man, is one of the protagonists in this film. He wakes up after a one-night stand with a prostitute ‘Goldie’ and she lies beside him dead. Marv realized that he has been framed and goes on a vengeful rampage to uncover the truth. He kills Kelvin who is a cannibal who murders and consumes people, and finds out the Kelvin was the cardinal’s ward. The setting of this scene is in the Cardinal’s room where it is dark and we can barely make out the furniture present inside. Color symbolism is extreme in the entire film; the film is almost entirely inked in black and white. The directors created the film using the visually stunning black and white style of film noir to emphasize cynical and extreme attitudes and sexual motivations. Film noir is used to depict the darker aspects of modernity, and is usually set in a criminal milieu; exactly what this film needed. The narrative and existential angst that drives a male protagonist and a voluptuous femme fatale who seduces the protagonist for her own benefits are the gist of film noir, which are present in Sin City. Goldie used Marv for his huge size and brute strength to protect her, while Marv had feelings for Goldie. Her murder drives him mad and fuels his rage to find her killer. Sin City can be classified as a neo-noir film, which possesses elements of film noir, but with updated themes and visual elements that were absent in classic film noir. However, it is the color rendering in this film that is unique. The retained or added color to certain objects is an amazing technique, bringing out the emotions of the character or empathize the significance of the object. In the confrontation scene, the eyes of Cardinal Roark are painted green and it is the only other color present in that picture of black and white. The color of the eyes shown would make the audience focus on Cardinal Roark as he confess, and to be drawn to ponder on his sick thoughts and emotions. Green color may have been used to depict a sense of evil and perverse present in the Cardinal, and true to the saying â€Å"The eyes are the windows to a person’s soul. The color red is rendered many times in the strikingly monochromatic film, mainly in the form of bloodshed or love objects like the heart-shaped bed where Marv and Goldie had their one night affair. Red is meant to depict extreme violence, death, love and vulnerability in Sin City and it plays an important role in stimulating the emotions of the audience. In spite of this, red is only used when it is required and not all blood is painted red. In some scenes, the blood is left as white colored to show that it is not as significant in the film. There is a scene in the flashback during Cardinal Roark’s confession, in which Goldie is fully colored from her yellow locks to her fiery red dress and the color of her skin. The idea was to illustrate how beautiful Goldie was in Marv’s eyes and how full of life Goldie was to Marv in the dreadful Sin City. Besides the color in the scene I have chosen, there are flashes of brilliant color at different junctions of the film. There is one scene where the prostitutes in Old Town, depicting justice served in a crude way, stain the skies red during the massacre of mercenaries. One very distinct color I would like to point out would be the Yellow Bastard’s skin color at the last part of the film. The connotation of yellow in this case, will be to represent dirty, pungent and obnoxious, so true to Yellow Bastard’s character that even his blood bleeds yellow. The costumes and makeup play another important element of mise-en-scene. As in the case of the dressing of the prostitute Goldie, the elegant and sexy dresses that she dons in the film help her play the part of the seductress. The blonde locks along with the blood-red lipstick she possess give the audience the vibe that she is a femme fatale. On the other hand, Marv is clothed throughout in a black trench coat with a white singlet inside, displaying his heedless of caution attitude. The actor playing Marv, Mickey Rourke is portrayed as the graying behemoth embodied underneath a ton of facial make-up to make him look grotesque and fierce. Besides that, Kelvin wears a pair of glasses to invoke the look of a creepy psychopath killer. All this costumes and makeup contribute in building the personalities of the characters in Sin City, empowering them with attributes the directors require them to have. In the lighting context for Sin City, low-key lighting is utilized throughout the film. Low-key lighting or chiaroscuro is present in the scene that I mentioned, with artificial light shone through the windows of the Cardinal’s room. The room is supposedly pitch dark and the only light present comes from outside the window. Thus creating a dimly lit scene, which gives the audience a feel of the impending doom of Cardinal Roark. Strong shadows engulf both the Cardinal and Marv, generating tension between the both characters. Marv’s face is barely visible at times, only a portion shown by the lighting. I believe by making the room so dark, it forces the audience to focus on what is visible. The weak light shone on Kelvin’s decapitated head also creates an eerie feel. At the final part of the scene whereby Marv presumably cuts Cardinal Roark’s throat, the darkness and shadows conceal the gore that ensues. The low-key lighting acts to dampen the effect of the violence as the details are being obscured. Furthermore, in the flashback during the confession of the cardinal, there is a shot of Kelvin with bright lighting shown from behind him. His entire face is black due to the shadow and his glasses were the only thing white in color. The effect creates such a deviant character and literally sends chills down one’s spine. On the whole, the sinister environment of Sin City is primarily submerged in low-key lighting, except in dramatic epic sequences, where the directors want the audience to see the details clearly. Another important aspect of misc-en-scene used in a film is the staging. Staging refers to the movement and placement of actors and objects. In the chosen scene, Marv breaks into Cardinal Roark’s room, shows him the decapitated head of Kelvin and places it on the table. â€Å"The dog ate the rest†, Marv tells Roark straight in his face. Marv does that to show his hostility towards Roark and to instill fear in him, but it does not seem to work as Roark just got out from his bed to examine the head. The act of Marv drawing his gun from his holster tells the audience that Marv was all ready to shoot Cardinal Roark in the head. His stance is in standing position while Roark just sat there without fleeing. This shows that Roark was ready to accept his fate. Yet, Marv did not blast his head to smithereens. He sat down across Roark to listen to his confession before murdering him. He smokes a cigarette as he listened to Roark, taking his time. All of this staging tells us that he wanted pleasure in killing the cardinal slowly. Expression on the characters is a critical part of staging and in a scene of confrontation as such, it plays a huge role. The expression on Marv’s face in the cardinal’s room remained unusually calm, without showing much rage. It creates a very tense atmosphere in the room, keeping the audience in suspense over when Marv would end Roark’s life. On the other hand, Roark was almost expressionless when he confessed to Marv about his perverse deeds and till the very end when he was killed in cold blood. There was only a slight tinge of nervousness when he saw Kelvin’s head. This scene illustrates vividly about a man who knows he is about to meet his doom and a man who is determined to take the life of another. It is the part where dark truth is revealed. Speech used is another element of mise-en-scene, not only can it invoke thoughts in the audience, it can bring out the true nature of the character. The rampaging Marv finally achieves his maniacal madman majesty when he answers Cardinal Roark’s final question of whether killing him would satisfy him, Marv answers â€Å"The killing? No, no satisfaction. Everything up to the killing, it’d be gas. † From that, we find out that although the diabolical priest and his ward deserve to die, Marv in fact enjoys torturing people and the speech alone reveals the sadistic nature in him. The camera is focused all the time on the closed-up faces of Marv and Roark when either one is speaking. In cinematography, facing the camera is the position with the most intimacy as the character is looking in our direction and we are able to see the expressions on his face, engaging our attention. Hence in a scene like this, the closed-up face positioning would be best. Close ups give the audience time to judge a character and create mood and tension between the two characters present. In the scene, I realize that the camera points upward towards Marc, giving the audience the perception that he is the powerful and dominating character now. The camera is high angled when focused on Roark, the cannibalistic cardinal, making him seem powerless and pitiful. The computer-generated monochromatic landscape of Sin City is both elegant and vivid. Presence of retro sets and vintage cars make the city seem like a city decades again, except when one of the thugs in the film drives a Ferrari from the modern world. This means that it could be a retro-modern world or it could be set today, just that the city is still in the 40s era. The costumes donned by the characters are weird for modern day fashion, from trench coats to stripper wear. It is perhaps pulp noir imagination and visualization of a world found only in graphic novels. The use of shallow depth of field in the scene I choose, allowed the subject to be isolated from the background. It serves to direct the audience’s gaze upon the expressions of the two characters. Depth is also created by lighting, which reveals or hides the parts, which the director want the audience to see. The scene is also set up in a small room to confine the background and focus on the characters. In this essay, I have analyzed how the directors used cinematographic elements of mise-en-scene to convey meaning and stimulate response in the audience in the particular scene. Mise-en-scene is extremely important in filmmaking and has to be incorporated in every film, how well the individual or combined mise-en-scene techniques are used will help create the desired meanings in each scene.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Weber and Simmel’s Take on Power and Conflict

Amber Clayton Weber and Simmel’s Take on Power and Conflict Jon Witt, explaining Max Weber’s theory on resources of power, was not surprised at the fact that students do not use the party resource to fight for better tuition costs, because of the individualistic society of the United States. This fits into conflict theory because the school would be considered a rational-legal authority. The students â€Å"give in† to the rules and perceived rights of the school to raise tuition costs. As Jon Witt said â€Å"there are reasons†¦ for why people should do what they are told to do. If the school did not charge the students money then they would not be able to pay the teachers and professors to educate them. This idea fits into the broader theory because Witt’s claim about the US being individualistic is not expanded in this chapter, but it is in previous ones. In chapter 4, Witt mentioned â€Å"†¦we combine extreme interdependence (due to specializ ation) with a strong sense of individualism (tied to a weak collective conscience). We depend on each other more than ever, but we realize it less. In an article by Margaret Foster, she asks 70 college presidents â€Å"can you school continue to attract students at its current rate of tuition growth? † and 80% said yes. This tells me that students are simply following the rational-legal authority of the bureaucratic schools, choosing to accept the higher charges and taking out higher loans. The students most likely do this because they are too weak as individuals to do anything about it or they assume the school leaders are making these decisions because they have no other choice (bad economy, budget cuts, ect).George Ritzer claims that the unpredictability of human error has led to a desire for greater control and the replacement of human with nonhuman technology. The idea of companies (bureaucracies) replacing humans with technology to ensure efficiency fits into Weber†™s theory of formal rationality. As Ritzer explains â€Å"[Fast-food chains have] employed all the rational principles pioneered by the bureaucracy and is part of the bureaucratic system because huge conglomerates now own many of the fast-food chains.McDonald’s utilized bureaucratic principles and combined them with others, and the outcome is the process of McDonaldization. † Ritzer backs his claim up with multiple examples and evidence. One of which being the replacement of human communication over the telephone. Companies force people to go through a string of â€Å"press 1 for yes or 2 for no†s before they even talk to a real person. In some cases, the person doesn’t speak to a real person at all. Although annoying, people just excuse it away as a consequence of living in our technological world. This idea is expanded in an article by Karen Korzep.She outlines the advantages and problems with TeleHealth (medical technology) and the resistance among p eople to a total technological take-over. She explains in her conclusion that â€Å"just because the technology exists, does not mean that everyone will be accepting to it†¦ [however] [i]n my opinion, it will be at least one more decade before we see this technology take over and really have an effect on jobs. † Therefore, even though people may have resistance to the technology and worry that it will affect jobs negatively, the technology will still, most likely, take over in time.William J. Staudenmeier, Jr. claims in his chapter about Georg Simmel’s theories on social drinking that when a member of the group buys a round of drinks, the others would not simply pay them money, because â€Å"treating†¦ has to do with personal relationships, and it is not strictly an economic exchange. † This idea fits into conflict theory because the taverns are becoming more and more bureaucratic with rules and regulations that the consumers must follow or face the co nsequences (kicked out or banned for fighting or over drinking).Instead of backing his claim up with evidence, Staudenmeier expands on the idea by saying â€Å"the ‘surplus of satisfaction’†¦ comes from the value of giving and receiving in a group in which such actions and the thought of such actions make us feel good and make us feel a part of the group. This is outside the narrow cash nexus of economic exchange because what is calculated here is not mere profit and loss. † The issue of teenage pregnancy and how it fits into this theory is best addressed in an article by Linda Arms Gilbert.She outlined a study done by the Franklin Heights Federal Housing Project in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. The Murfreesboro Housing Authority partnered with the police department to help rid the projects from drug-related behaviors by developing positive relationships with the Franklin Heights families. The police department made over 500 contacts, creating a positive working relationship between the families and law enforcement as well as informed residents willing to provide tips against drug-related behaviors.The Parks and Recreation Department started an after-school program for 8-13-year old students, which included educational leisurely activities and an after-school tutoring program. A Parents as Teachers Program was started that allowed teen mothers to connect with their children. The program â€Å"held group meetings to help young parents understand the emotional, physical cognitive needs of their young children and to form a community of teen mothers who could offer support to each other. In the end â€Å"Franklin Heights has taught an entire city about the importance of collaboration and has shown what can be accomplished when individuals and agencies choose to look beyond the borders of their own job descriptions and departments to see the needs of families within that community. † The point is that, even in a bureaucratic society whe re, typically, rational-legal authority does not think about the well-being of their â€Å"workers† (in this case, the people who require government assistance), there can be an authority who thinks beyond what is efficient and profitable and helps the issue of teenage pregnancy, drug use, and violence. ——————————————- [ 1 ]. John Witt, The Big Picture: A Sociology Primer (New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. , 2007) p 89 [ 2 ]. Witt, p 86 [ 3 ]. Witt, 59 [ 4 ]. FOSTER, MARGARET. â€Å"Sticker Shock. † American Scholar 82. 1 (2013): 120. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. [ 5 ]. George Ritzer, â€Å"The Weberian Theory of Rationalization and the McDonaldization of Contemporary Society†, Peter Kivisto, ed. , Illuminating Social Life: Classical and Contemporary Theory Revisited, 4th ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 2008), p 52 [ 6 ].Ritzer, p 45 [ 7 ]. Ritzer, p 54 [ 8 ]. Korzep, Karen. â€Å"The Future Of Technology And The Effect It May Have On Replacing Human Jobs. † Technology & Health Care 18. 4/5 (2010): 353-358. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. [ 9 ]. Korzep, p 357 [ 10 ]. William Staudenmeier, Jr. , â€Å"Alcohol-Related Windows on Simmel's Social World,† Kivisto, 109 [ 11 ]. Staudenmeier, Jr. , p 110 [ 12 ]. Gilbert, Linda Arms. â€Å"The Teen Pregnancy Dilemma: A Different Solution. † Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin 73. 3 (2007): 5-8. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. p 3 [ 13 ]. Gilbert, p 3