Wednesday, December 11, 2019

A History Of Rape Essay Research Paper free essay sample

A History Of Rape Essay, Research Paper Amongst the ancient Hebrews, who flourished about 1000 B.C. adult females were portrayed as more sexual than work forces, and their position was inferior to that of work forces. Sexual activities were supposed to be confined to one # 8217 ; s partner, but adult females who failed to continue these regulations was dealt with more badly than those by males because adult females were considered to be adult male # 8217 ; s belongings. The Judaic jurisprudence of that clip was defined as criminal conversation, and was punishable by decease. Harmonizing to the Hebrews, criminal conversation referred merely to a married adult female # 8217 ; s sexual intercourse with a adult male other than her hubby. A adult male who had intercourse with another adult male # 8217 ; s married woman was charged merely with the misdemeanor of the hubby # 8217 ; s belongings rights. While the penalty was terrible, the adult male did non have the decease punishment, merely the adult female did. So, if a adult male committed the offense of colza ( as we know it today ) the adult female, or # 8220 ; belongings # 8221 ; , was put to decease and the adult male escaped with a terrible penalty, but non decease. The thought that adult females were belongings is besides reflected in some Old Testament views sing harlotry and colza. Because a adult female belonged to a adult male, colza was considered larceny. A adult male who raped the girl of another adult male could shrive the state of affairs by either paying the male parent, or get marrieding the girl. It wasn # 8217 ; t a offense for a male parent to sell sexual entree of his girl to other work forces. However, if a adult female chose to hold sexual dealingss with other work forces, and deprived her male parent of the fee, she committed a capital offense! This discourtesy could ensue in the girl of an ordinary citizen being stoned to decease. If the girl of a priest committed such an discourtesy, the priest could bespeak t he girl to be put to decease by fire. Girls who had sex ( or raped ) before the age of 12 had their penalty postponed until their 12th birthday, at which they were so stoned to decease. In 1486, two German theologists, Sprenger and Kramer published a book called Malleus Maleficarum which diagnosed processs of placing witchery. Of these processs a adult female was susceptible to witchcraft because of her animal ( sexual ) lecherousness. This book expressed the dangers of adult females # 8217 ; s lecherousness and their moral depredations. Because of this on turning fright of the temptations and evil # 8217 ; s of a adult female # 8217 ; s gender in the fifteenth and 16th centuries, the effort to # 8220 ; salvage # 8221 ; the community took the signifier of enchantress Hunts. A male could, hence # 8220 ; take # 8221 ; a adult female, and because the people of this clip period believed that the adult female was evil with her seductions, the consequence of today # 8217 ; s offen se of sexual assault would ensue in her decease and the adult male # 8217 ; s cleaning of the psyche. In the 19th century, when the Industrial Revolution created a in-between category, the functions of males and females began to go detached. The ruling sexual ideals of this clip was called Victorianism. During this clip period adult females were expected to be inactive and emotional and to concern themselves merely with their proper topographic point, the place. In contrast to the center ages where adult females lured work forces to perpetrate wickedness, in the 19th century the incrimination for lecherousness was straight put on work forces. It was during this period that a adult female # 8217 ; s morality, gustatory sensation, and feelings were more developed than work forces. Therefore, the development towards today # 8217 ; s sexual assault Torahs began to turn. Men get down to go more apt for their functions in sexual assault towards adult females. The Victorian epoch was so influential that until late many adult females attempted to conceal their sexual involvement and worried about # 8220 ; animalistic # 8221 ; feelings. During the first portion of the century, work forces believed that it took alot of attempt to pursuade a adult female to hold sex, and that it took more work to acquire her aroused and orgasmic. The Kinsey group and Masters and Johnson helped, through their research, to partly switch these positions. Today, in some circles, females are seen as sexual, and some argue that females are more capable of sexual response than males are. Masters and Johnson suggest that adult females are more sexual than work forces because of their ability to hold multiple climaxs. We have non wholly escaped the early clip beliefs where adult females were thought to hold charming powers over work forces because of adult females # 8217 ; s seductiveness. For illustration, the stating # 8220 ; a adult female # 8217 ; s intuition # 8221 ; gives the thoug ht that adult females # 8217 ; s power of perceptual experience exceed those of work forces. The thought that adult females provoke colza by luring work forces beyond their capableness to command themselves # 8211 ; a belief that degrades both adult females and work forces # 8211 ; is still accepted by many modern-day North Americans. Today, every province in the United States has a jurisprudence against sexual assault or colza, yet the specific definition of the offense varies. In fact, in 1974 Michigan became the first province to do a colza reform jurisprudence that was intended to extinguish the century old myths and legal tra ditions that were applied to the offense of colza. Since 1974, all 50 provinces have modified their sexual assault Torahs. The reforms include the undermentioned ends: 1 ) To increase the likeliness of describing assault, every bit good as the apprehension and strong belief rates. 2 ) To do the legal criterion for sexual assault consistent with those for other offenses. 3 ) To increase control over determinations made in the criminal-justice system. 4 ) To protect victims from take downing intervention during colza tests by restricting cross- scrutiny. 5 ) To sensitise and educate society about the position and rights of adult females. There are many provinces that do non utilize the term colza any longer because of it # 8217 ; s intension of forced penile-vaginal incursion. The term sexual assault is now used so that it implies coercive sexual contact. Many provinces have besides re-written their Torahs so that the footings are gender-neutral and can do the wrongdoer to be either male or female. Finally, matrimonial position has been stricken as a defence against sexual assault. My sentiment of the development from the ancient Hebrews to today # 8217 ; s sexual assault Torahs is that adult females as victims have surely come a long manner! Womans are now able to do an call when the offense of sexual assault occurs, and have the agencies to which they can convey the culprit ( if found ) to justness. However, colza tests can be every bit humiliating as the sexual assault itself. With this in head, unluckily many adult females choose non to even talk of the incident. In my sentiment, the construct of males being victims of sexual assault has brought today # 8217 ; s society back to the times of the ancient Hebrews. It seems that the functions of males v. females have # 8220 ; flip-flopped # 8221 ; and it is now the sentiment that males can non be raped. I believe this to be really untrue. In fact, in the Arab states, when a individual is caught irrupting in a hareem the individual is turned over to slaves to be used for their sexual pleasance. Rape of confined soldiers in war is common among the Arabs, Persians, Greeks, an d Romans. This tradition, that has been around for centuries, continues harmonizing to the International Commission of Geneva. In the Middle East Americans arrested on drug charges are chained by the mortise joint to a bed in prison and are left there for 24 hours to be raped by inmates. In America, Judgess often sentence immature first clip wrongdoers to a really short prison term, such as 30 to 90 yearss, followed by five or more old ages probation. One must inquire when this is done if the justice hasn # 8217 ; t sent the felon to prison merely long plenty to be raped before he is released. One could see how this tactic would surely discourage a condemnable from future offense! These signifiers of colza of males are used as penalty. There are many ways for work forces to be raped, and it # 8217 ; s a fact, even though many people in the U.S. garbage to believe that it could happen. Even though there are many alterations that could be made, I believe the alterations from the anc ient Hebrews, to the Victorian epoch and the Industrial Revolution to today have been for the better. For the work forces nevertheless, I am loath to believe they feel the same. I believe the jurisprudence was the manner it was because of society # 8217 ; s readings of the bible during scriptural times. Women was considered subservient to work forces hence adult females were considered adult male # 8217 ; s belongings. It would look merely natural in society # 8217 ; s position, during those periods that adult females could non claim sexual maltreatment. I believe that the jurisprudence throughout history has changed as a consequence of society # 8217 ; s altering reading of faith, the Victorian and Industrial period ( where adult females # 8217 ; s functions became more profound ) , to the adult females # 8217 ; s motion which demanded equality. To an exceeding grade biass against adult females have been reduced since scriptural times, a force that I believe is surely a facto r in the development from which adult females were considered enchantresss to the term sexual assault. The inquiry of what alterations may be necessary to better today # 8217 ; s sexual assault Torahs may include some of the undermentioned suggestions: 1 ) Continuing instruction on the offense of sexual assault through the usage of prime-time telecasting commercials, and docudramas. 2 ) Continuing instruction through the usage of wireless. 3 ) Alternatively of cyberspace # 8220 ; pop-ups # 8221 ; , which seem to be an irritation that we can # 8217 ; t seem to acquire rid of, use the # 8220 ; pop-ups # 8221 ; for community instruction alternatively of being used to lure aberrant sexual behavior. 4 ) Stress that work forces can be victims, every bit good as adult females, of sexual assault. 5 ) Encourage victims of sexual assault to describe sexual assault discourtesies. 6 ) Educate the populace of their rights against the misdemeanor of sexual assault and guarantee the victims that humiliation is non directed at the victim, the accused is the focal point of humiliation. 7 ) Make # 6 a pattern, for Judgess to uphold, in all courtrooms.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

The Traffic Conjestion Problem In Sri Lanka Tourism Essay Essay Example

The Traffic Conjestion Problem In Sri Lanka Tourism Essay Paper Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean in South Asia, 65 610 square kg metres in country, divided into nine administrative states where population of about 21 million in 2009. The state measures about 400 kilometres from North to South and 250 kilometer from East to West. The entire length of roadway in Sri Lanka is 112,603 kilometer in 2009. The figure of vehicles in Sri Lanka in 2009 is 2,245,108. By 1948, when Sri Lanka became independent, there were about 11,000 kilometers of roads, of which about 7,000 kilometers were paved. Sri Lanka has a route web of approximately 112,603km, consisting about 11,760 kilometers of national roads ; 15,743 kilometer of provincial roads ; 80,600 kilometer of local authorization roads ; and 4,500 kilometer of roads owned or controlled by irrigation, wildlife, and land development governments. These national main roads comprise roads that are categorized as Class A and B roads, the highest classs in Sri Lanka s route hierarchy. Provincial roads are categorized as Class C, D, and E roads. While the capacity of local and rural roads has been expanded since 1948, most of the bole roads day of the month back to pre-independence old ages and their capacity has become unequal owing in portion to neglected care. Road conditions are by and large hapless. We will write a custom essay sample on The Traffic Conjestion Problem In Sri Lanka Tourism Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Traffic Conjestion Problem In Sri Lanka Tourism Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Traffic Conjestion Problem In Sri Lanka Tourism Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Roadss are the spinal column of the conveyance sector in Sri Lanka. They are important for the motion of people and goods and play a critical function in incorporating the state, easing economic growing, and finally cut downing poorness. National roads are keeping over 70 per centum of the traffic in Sri Lanka. Roadss are really of import for the big bulk of Sri Lanka s people who live in the small towns. They are frequently the lone manner for most rural people to make necessary services such as infirmaries, schools, markets, and Bankss, which are largely situated far from their small towns. 1.2 Problem Background The installation of smooth traffic motion is an decoration every bit good as an plus to any metropolis. But capital metropolis of Sri Lanka is confronting a large job with traffic job. Traffic job has aggravated by the attending of all signifiers economic, commercial and administrative maps in the metropolis. The metropolis of Colombo attracts about 1.5 Million drifting population on a on the job twenty-four hours and with the add-on of the resident population in the metropolis. The entire population in the metropolis increases to more than 2 Million during the daylight. It is estimated that approximately 50 % of the transposing population arrives in the metropolis for employment or to link in commercial activities and or to go to educational establishments. The remainder comes to the metropolis for assorted other intents. Commuting population are used assorted signifiers of transit to come in the metropolis. Both the figure of vehicles and the riders come ining the City are increasing twelvemonth by twelvemonth. Traffic congestion is often increasing as more and more people buy vehicles. At the same clip the residential population and the ownership of vehicles within the metropolis bounds will besides see a singular growing. Vehicles are come ining to the City from 9 entry points on working yearss have been estimated to be about 275,000, and this is in add-on to the part to the traffic floor by the usage of vehicles of the occupants in the metropolis. The combination of these facets outcome is a greater attractive force of the metropolis for people from the remainder of the state therefore worsening the conveyance job in the metropolis of Colombo. 2. Reasons for traffic congestion The figure of vehicles in the metropolis is non the lone factor that contributes to congestion. There are several other grounds for this traffic congestion. 2.1 The current traffic signal web A signal operation system is indispensable to route efficiency. There are so many traffic circles and hamlets where no traffic signals are installed in every topographic point. These topographic points are celebrated for traffic blocks since many automobilists and walkers do non follow the prevalent regulations. Pedestrians are crossed roads without regular intervals and utilizing manus signals. It seems that the current traffic signal web in Colombo is deficient to keep monolithic sums of traffic volume. 2.2 The current route system Massive main roads, many Bridgess, and tunnels can non be found all over the state like South Korea. Most of the roads are little and narrow.The conditions and criterions of the roads are unequal to run into quickly turning cargo and rider traffic. More than 50 % of the national roads have hapless or really hapless surface status and many are earnestly congested. The range for widening roads on bing alliances is limited chiefly because of land acquisition issues. 2.3 Inadequate investing Despite the significant additions in traffic volume at that place have been unequal investings for building of new main roads or broadening and bettering bing roads. Over the past old ages the investing in the route sector has been chiefly determined on the rehabilitation of the bing route web. 2.4 Mixed traffic system National main roads, which are by and large two-lane, has been unable to transport the current volume of assorted traffic ( walkers, motorcycles, coachs, three-wheelers, and motor vehicles ) . Increasing traffic volumes and a traffic mix consisting of motorised and non-motorized traffic have resulted in low travel velocities, terrible traffic congestions, and increased accident rates. 2.5 Street sellers There are illegal buildings and street sellers are making their concerns in waysides. In most roads passage through waysides is obstructed by these street sellers. Uncontrolled wayside development and concerns has reduced the capacity of the route web. 2.6 Illegal parking Illegal parking significantly contributes to congestion and impedes the traffic flow. Cities suffer in Sri Lanka from unenforced drive and parking ordinances. Although Vehicles parking in waysides is illegal in the state most of automobilists are parking their vehicles in waysides ground for that is restriction of parking topographic points. 2.7 Sidewalks for walkers In capital metropolis, most of roads have constructed without pavements for walkers. When walkers are walking side on the route the bing roads have translated to as narrow roads. 3. Datas analysis In this portion has concerned about most relevant informations in connexion with traffic congestion. Although South Korea has provided more installations for their conveyance system they besides are possessed job with congestion. In South Koreans has enjoyed with many main roads, Bridgess, tunnels, and express ways in connexion with their conveyance system. In sing about traffic congestion can be considered as population, no of vehicles, no of accident and no of individuals killed in accident are the most of import factors. In the undermentioned information has been attending about compare information with South Korea and Sri Lanka. 3.1 Population The following table no 1 and figure no1 has included information about population in thousand in two states. Table no 1.Population in two states Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sri Lanka Population ( 1000 ) 18,713 18,797 18,921 19,173 19,462 19,668 19,886 20,010 20,156 20,303 South Korea population ( 1000 ) 47,008 47,357 47,622 47,859 48,039 48,138 48,297 48,456 48,607 48,747 Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka Figure no 1.Population in two states Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka When sing about this information South Korea population is higher than Sri Lanka ground for that Sri Lanka is a little state than South Korea. 3.2 No of registered vehicles Other most of import factor is no of registered vehicles in these two states. In table no 2 and 3 are provided entire no of vehicles in two states. Table no 2. No of registered vehicle in South Korea Year Registered Vehicle ( 1000 ) Increasing Rate ( % ) 2001 12,910 7.1 2002 13,950 8 2003 14,590 4.6 2004 14,930 2.4 2005 15,400 3.1 2006 15,900 3.2 2007 16,430 3.4 2008 16,790 2.2 Beginning: Table no 3. No of registered vehicle in Sri Lanka Year Registered Vehicle ( 1000 ) Increasing Rate ( % ) 2001 1,779 2002 1,892 6.3 2003 2,074 9.7 2004 2,298 10.8 2005 2,527 10 2006 2,828 12 2007 3,126 10.5 2008 3,391 8.5 Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka Figure no 2.Registered vehicles in South Korea Beginning: Figure no 3.Registered vehicles in Sri Lanka Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka In comparing with 2001 the no of vehicles has increased in 30 % twelvemonth 2008 in South Korea. There are 91 % important increase in Sri Lanka comparison with 2001 and 2008. Although degree of increased of entire no of vehicles in both states has decreased it is really important in 2004 in South Korea. 3.3 Traffic Accident in South Korea In the undermentioned tabular arraies and figures have been discussed about traffic accident volume and how many people killed by route accident in both states. Table no 4.Traffic Accident in South Korea Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Traffic Accidents Volume 290,481 260,579 230,953 240,832 220,755 214,171 213,745 211,662 251,822 Person Killed 10,236 8,097 7,090 7,212 6,563 6,376 6,327 6,166 5,870 Beginning: Table no 5.Traffic Accident in Sri Lanka Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Traffic Accidents Volume 54,250 52,092 55,031 59,494 53,458 42,537 35,763 33,993 31,872 Person Killed 1992 1952 2029 1933 2116 2236 2238 2402 2328 Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka Figure no 4. Traffic Accident in South Korea Beginning: Figure no 5. Traffic Accident in Sri Lanka Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka Although traffic accident volume has been decreased up to 2007 there is a considerable increase in 2008 in South Korea. In comparing with 2007, the traffic volume has been increased in 19 % in the twelvemonth 2008. In sing about Sri Lanka information the highest accident volume has been reported in twelvemonth 2003.The sum is 59,494 accidents. After 2003, there are noteworthy decreased in the traffic volume of Sri Lanka. When concerned about no of killed individual in accident there are large different with two state. Although in South Korea the no of killed individual in accident has been decreased twelvemonth by twelvemonth the Sri Lanka state of affairs is different. There has been reported a important increase about no of individual killed in accident. 4. Solutions for jobs 4.1 Traffic signal web To react traffic congestion in capital metropolis must be established new traffic signals in every traffic circle, cross route and necessary topographic points. It will be appreciable affected to cut down traffic congestion. The traffic signal web is established in 100 % in the developed states and many of other states. 4.2 Improve route substructure. It is necessary to build a modern route web, and upgrade bing roads to run into the state s economic and societal development demands. In add-on to the demand for bettering and rehabilitating deteriorated roads, there is an pressing demand to ship on a plan for the building of new intercity main roads. In sing about route substructure should concern about pavements and illegal buildings. It will be helped to ease more route infinite to the automobilist on the route. 4.3 Private sector investing The Government has limited capacity to finance public investings. Advanced funding schemes particularly private sector investing will be needed to mobilise sufficient support for such main roads. Using these financess can be improved route care and building and do route development sustainable. The authorities should advance private sector engagement in route substructure betterment. 4.4 Transport Planning and Coordination. Transport sector duties in Sri Lanka have been widen over a battalion of ministries and bureaus, taking to a extremely disconnected construction of decision-making. At present there are nine ministries with a direct duty for conveyance substructure. When taking determinations sing route substructure it have been affected for all these governments. In the past decennaries, many determinations have non match and there are besides large statement about these determinations. The Sri Lankan authorities should take necessary stairss to set up one establishment from garnering these all relevant establishments to supply a better conveyance services. 5. Policy execution 5.1 A national policy sing traffic signal The traffic signals will assist to better traffic flow on roads. These stairss would guarantee less traffic congestion and traffic accidents compare with old state of affairs. 5.2 Private investing Harmonizing to current state of affairs in the state, authorities should believe a national policy sing private investing on the route substructure. Lack of finance state of affairs in the authorities, this measure will be helped to authorities to better the route substructure in the state. 5.3 Reduce responsible establishments In present there are several establishments in sing route conveyance. It would non be good to taking the determinations. In sing that, can be arrange these all establishments under one policy sing the route transit. 6. Decision The efficiency of Sri Lanka s conveyance sector has blocked by a assortment of restraints. Sri Lanka depends on foreign trade and it can be increased by efficient conveyance web in the state. Globalization of trade has risen non merely from the liberalisation of trade, but besides from major progresss in communications, conveyance, and storage engineerings. On clip bringing of merchandises and riders has become a consequence of good transit web. For travel of people and transit of factors of production, semi-finished goods, and manufactured merchandises will necessitate efficient conveyance services. After following effectual and efficient policies sing transit web can be achieved a better conveyance web in the state.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

School Bullying free essay sample

In the past many have focused on the abuse of drug and alcohol use in school aged students along with students carrying weapons to schools, it seemed as if no one was recognizing the significance of school bullying. For victims of bullying, they go to school every day facing harassment, taunting, and humiliation. Studies show that 25-35% of teens encountered some type of bullying in their lifetime (Nansel et al, 2001). Bullying is a form of violent behavior that happens not only in the schools but everywhere. Kids have been exposed to bullying in school for generations. Even though bullying has always been a factor the consequences for the victims have become more severe and sometimes fatal. The violent behavior within school disrupts the learning process and creates a negative atmosphere for the students, staff and everyone involved. There has to be an answer and a solution for what we as educators and members of a community can do to minimize and stop bullying. We will write a custom essay sample on School Bullying or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page According to Dan Olewus, creator of Olweus Bullying Prevention Program bullying is defined when a person is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons, and he or she has difficulty defending himself or herself (When looking at this definition of bullying it is important to notice that there are three components. The first component of bullying is there must be aggressive, unwanted negative behavior, the negative behavior has to be repeated over a period of time and finally there has to be an imbalance of strength between the two individuals involved. There are many forms of bullying some of which include verbal belittling regarding religion, race, looks, or speech; hitting, pushing or slapping; rumors; and sexual comments or gestures. Pansy, nerd, dweeb, and loser: these are just a few of the horrible slurs that school bullies direct toward their not accepted, vulnerable peers. These malicious words can quickly grind down the self-esteem of their victims. However, words are not the only tool the bullies use against their victims. Physical violence towards the weak and emotionally unstable is a common theme in many schools, and can pose a grave threat to those students who cannot readily defend themselves. Physical bullying can result in many dangerous outcomes. The bully themselves create physical harm to their victims and even in some cases the victim has a breaking point and retaliates in a violent way. Unfortunately some students and faculty do not feel like their schools are safe because of the types of bullying that occur. In the past there have been devastating acts of school shootings that haunt the minds of many. One of the more devastating examples of bullied victim retaliation is of the kids from the Columbine shooting, where two kids who were bullied went on a murderous shooting rampage killing the lives of many at their schools and taking their own. According to the United States Secret Service and Department of Education’s school violence report, as more violent acts occur, not only in their schools and other schools around the world, more kids are becoming afraid to go to school. Schools need to become a safe haven for students not a place of fear. As educators we need to develop a plan to minimize the bullying and let students know they are safe when they cross through the doors of the school. One of the first questions asked about bullying is why would someone bully another person? Some people believe bullying and aggressive attitudes towards one another are normal behavior for children. Dr. Howard Spivak of the New England Medical Center disagrees, he says bullies or people being bullied are people who show indicators that something is wrong, and children who experience either or both need help (Spivak Prothrow-Stith, 2001). While looking through research, one conclusion that can be drawn about kids and teens who bully, a common denominator is they come from a bad home environment. Signs and evidence pointed to individuals who bully have been verbally or physically abused at home, which causes anger and sadness to build inside of them. If this is the case these â€Å"bullies† are looking for a way to take it out on someone who will not fight back. Which brings up the next question about bullying, what makes someone a target of bullying? The victims of bullying tend to be the exact opposites of their bully. Finding the victims of bullying, or even potential victims of bullying, tends to be easier to find then the bullies themselves. People who are bullied are often shy and quiet, with few friends and little social support at school. They may be physically weak or lack confidence in their physical abilities therefore they rarely stand up to bullies. Most victims do nothing to provoke the harassment, their lack of physical strength and social abilities do it for them. There is on subgroup of bully-victims called the â€Å"aggressive† victims. These victims are usually impulsive and socially clumsy. They often have reading and writing problems and show characteristics of attention-deficit disorder (ADHD). Their behavior tends to bring out negative reactions from other students. James D. Unnevern found in his study, â€Å"Bullies, Aggressive Victims and Victims: Are They Distinct Groups? † aggressive victims were less proactively aggressive but more reactively aggressive than pure bullies (Unevern, 2005). They were also substantially more proactively aggressive than pure victims. What that means is the â€Å"aggressive† victims react in a negative way to how people are treating them rather than being the instigators of the bullying. Bullying occurs at any school age starting from lower education and into the high school years. Researchers at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development found 30 percent of 6th through 10th graders are involved in bullying at school and frequency of bullying was found to be higher among 6-8th graders compared to 9-10th graders, and more prominent among boys compared to girls (Langdon Preble 2008). Who are bullies? Bullies can be anyone. Within a school building a bully can be an administrator, a teacher, a staff member and both male and female students. Most studies have shown there are more boys bullies than girls. However, do not count girls out; there can be a girl bully too. Although physical bullying does happens among girls, they tend to use less-direct tactics such as ostracizing their victims, spreading rumors, name-calling and/or manipulating friendships. Boys tend to get physical, threatening bodily harm to their victims. Even though boys usually revert to physical bullying, with social network popularity on the rise, more social and verbal bullying is being seen between boy bullies and their victims. To conclude who are our bullies, they can be anyone. A bully is a person, no matter what age, gender, or race, who gangs up on a weaker individual repeatedly causing physical or emotional harm. You never really hear of any positive results as an outcome in a bullying situation, however there have been plenty stories that end in a devastating or even fatale way. In extreme cases, someone, between the bully and the victim, ends up dying. It is usually the victim who takes their own life and in some cases set out for revenge before doing so. In 2006, Megan Meier, age thirteen, was repeatedly bullied over popular social network called MySpace. Because of bully telling her the world would be a better place without her; Megan took her own life (Cyber Bullying, 2007). If the victim gets bullied enough, they can develop depression and become unsafe to themselves or to others. The topic of bullying has gained not only national attention but international attention. People everywhere wonder what we can do to put an end to the bullying. Organizations have been created to bring awareness to bullying and schools are beginning to create a zero tolerance policy within their schools. The idea of what can be done to stop bullying has stumped a lot of people. There have been suggestions of ignoring the bully, but that seems to never work, they are persistent and it could only get worse. For other students who want to stop the bullying they could simply approach the victim and make them feel welcomed and not alone, giving them a support system from the bully. Unfortunately there are many students who will not do anything about it because they do not want to be the replace target of the bully if they protect or support the first victim. Many schools have created a student organization called S. A. V. E. , Students Against Violence Everywhere. The members of this group try to serve as mediators and help victims when bullying happens. SAVE attempt to take a group of individuals – who are often powerless against the pains of bullying – and turn them into a cohesive group letting them know they are not alone. (Rinaldo, 2005). There is only so much the other students can do to try and prevent bullying without putting themselves into harm so it is up to the teachers and administrators to help them put an end to it. Following the infamous Columbine High School shooting, mentioned earlier, where two victims of bullying went on a shooting rampage at their schools many schools have enacted zero tolerance policies towards violence within schools. The zero tolerance policy is strict and creates rules for both students and faculty. This policy allows no exceptions, and leaves room for no doubt when a rule is broken which could bring violence to any member around the school building and should result in suspension and expulsion. Many schools have adopted this policy and have observed both positive and negative results. Those who favor the policy, look at whether the school environment has improvement due to zero tolerance. The individuals who are pro zero tolerance believes it has reinstated safety in schools giving students, parents, teachers, and the community a breath of relief. Jack McConnell, an education minister from Scotland, is in favor of the zero tolerance policy for bullies and commented saying, a school community should be one where pupils are free to learn and realize their potential away from bullying (Holme Buie 2001). Additionally, zero tolerance promotes fair punishment to all individuals. A zero tolerance policy for schools can create the same rules and consequences for all students within a school no matter their race, gender, religion, background or socioeconomic status (Rice, 2009). It seems if there is a strict policy put in place, such as the zero tolerance policy, the strict rules will imply expectations of how their students should behave and if these rules are not met there will be consequences. While zero-tolerance may seem like a good idea on paper and has been beneficial to some school systems, others feel it is detrimental to education. People who are opposed of the zero tolerance policy in schools all have the same belief that it is too extreme or inappropriate and that teachers and administrators are not using it in the correct form. After Columbine, and recent events like Columbine, like the devastating shooting at Virginia Tech it is understandable why schools have heightened their security. There seems to a reoccurring theme that the individuals who went on these rampages were victims of bullying and creating a policy to eliminate bullying is understandable. But many argue the zero tolerance policy while it is a good concept, needs to provide more logic on how to put the policy in place. In her article, The Time is Right to End Zero Tolerance, author Gara Lamarche suggest that zero-tolerance policies are ineffective in improving student behavior and student achievement (Lamarche, 2011). Without a clear understanding of how to implement a zero tolerance policy and logic behind the consequences the nations suspension and expulsion levels are at a new high. According to recent data contained from the National Center on Education Statistics more than 3. million students were suspended or expelled in 2006, which means for every 14 students one of those were expelled or suspended. The report also indicated of those punished, less than one in 10 were for violent offenses. The vast majority were for non-violent offenses, such as tardiness, talking back to a teacher, or violating dress codes (Lamarche, 2011). Zero tolerance can limit misbehavior with students but the extreme consequences of suspension and expulsion can have serious effects on education process; the students who are likely to be suspended or expelled are the very students who can least afford to miss class. While preventing education is not the intention of zero tolerance, it has become a negative side effect. Research and literature shows we are still struggling to come up with a solution on what to do to decrease bullying and not affect the educational process. Zero-tolerance for violent acts seems like it could be an effective way to help decrease bullying in the educational environment. However, if schools do decide to adapt this policy it is important for everyone to have the same understanding of how and when this should be enforced and what can be done so the process of learning is not disrupted. What can we do to prevent bullying? If there is not a policy at your school about bullying, try to get involved as much as possible. Some administrators want to implement policies and there are student organized groups trying to take action, but teachers need to get involved too. Teachers cannot be afraid to take a stand and voice their concerns about bullying with their administrators, hopefully the administrators have the same concerns and collectively you can work together to figure out what can be done. If you feel like the victim of bullying is comfortable enough with you try to approach them and hold a conversation. Ask them questions like how are they feeling, who is bullying them, and what can you do to help? Do not be surprised if the victim turns you away or shuts down and does not want to talk about, they may fear their bully is taking notice and may seek revenge. Even if the victim does shut down at least you have planted the seed in their head that you are there to help. If you have suspicion a child is being bullied getting the school counselor involved can help as well. Plan to have the counselor talk to the class as a whole to help plant another seed in the victims mind that there are more people willing to help. A teacher is an important role within the school, not just to educate, but to be a guide and mentor to the students as well. To conclude, schools are institutions which have the potential to mold and create our future generations. The increase in school bullying has directed our attention to the need to take all steps to ensure a safe learning environment for students and teachers.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Rice; Food; Meal in Chinese

Rice; Food; Meal in Chinese é ¥ ­ (or é £ ¯Ã‚  in traditional Chinese) is pronounced fn in pinyin. This is the 618th most common character in Chinese and can mean rice, food or meal. The two latter meanings are the most common in modern Chinese. Character Breakdown é ¥ ­ / é £ ¯ is a semantic-phonetic compound, which means that one part describes its meaning and the other part describes its pronunciation. The character is composed of two parts:   é ¥ £/é £  (shà ­): food; to eatÃ¥   (fÇŽn): contrary; reverse é ¥ £/é £  (shà ­), which means food; to eat, is obviously related to the meaning of the word and is also the radical of this character. Ã¥   means contrary; reverse, and is not related to the meaning of the character. Instead, this character component carries information about how its pronounced. Since this character was created a long time ago, things have changed and the pronunciation is no longer identical. In fact, the tone is different. Still, if you know how to pronounce this component, remembering the pronunciation of the entire character becomes easier (and the other way around). Common Words Using Fn Coupled with another character,  Ã© ¥ ­ can take on a different meaning. Here are a few examples: Ã¥ Æ'é ¥ ­ (chÄ « fn): to eat (in general, not to eat rice)æâ€" ©Ã© ¥ ­ (zÇŽo fn): breakfastÃ¥ Ë†Ã© ¥ ­ ( wÇ” fn): lunch晚é ¥ ­ (wÇŽn fn): dinneré ¥ ­Ã© ¦â€  (fn guÇŽn): restaurantç ± ³Ã© ¥ ­ (m Ç  fn): riceè ¦ Ã© ¥ ­ (yo fn): to begé ¥ ­Ã¥ ºâ€" (fn din): hotel (typically one that has a restaurant inside) Sentence Examples Using  Fn QÇ ng gÄ›i wÇ’ yÄ «wÇŽn bifn.è ¯ ·Ã§ »â„¢Ã¦Ë†â€˜Ã¤ ¸â‚¬Ã§ ¢â€"ç™ ½Ã© ¥ ­Ã£â‚¬â€š(traditional Chinese)è «â€¹Ã§ µ ¦Ã¦Ë†â€˜Ã¤ ¸â‚¬Ã§ ¢â€"ç™ ½Ã© £ ¯ (simplified Chinese)Please give me a bowl of white rice.NÇ  kÄ›yÇ  mÇŽi yÄ « jÄ «n mÇ fn ma?ä ½  Ã¥  ¯Ã¤ » ¥Ã¨ ² ·Ã¤ ¸â‚¬Ã¦â€" ¤Ã§ ± ³Ã© £ ¯Ã¥â€"Žä ½  Ã¥  ¯Ã¤ » ¥Ã¤ ¹ °Ã¤ ¸â‚¬Ã¦â€" ¤Ã§ ± ³Ã© ¥ ­Ã¥ â€"Can you buy a pound of rice, please?WÇ’ à ¨ le! Qà ¹ chÄ «fn ba!我é ¤â€œÃ¤ ºâ€ Ã¥Å½ »Ã¥ Æ'é £ ¯Ã¥  §!我é ¥ ¿Ã¤ ºâ€ Ã¥Å½ »Ã¥ Æ'é ¥ ­Ã¥  §!Im hungry! Lets go eat!NÇ  mÄ  zuà ² de fn ti ho chÄ «leä ½  Ã¥ ª ½Ã¥ Å¡Ã§Å¡â€žÃ© £ ¯Ã¥ ¤ ªÃ¥ ¥ ½Ã¥ Æ'ä ºâ€ Ã¤ ½  Ã¥ ¦Ë†Ã¥ Å¡Ã§Å¡â€žÃ© ¥ ­Ã¥ ¤ ªÃ¥ ¥ ½Ã¥ Æ'ä ºâ€ Your moms cooking so so good.NÇ  xiÇŽng qà ¹ nÇŽ jiÄ  fnguÇŽn?ä ½  Ã¦Æ' ³Ã¥Å½ »Ã¥â€œ ªÃ¥ ® ¶Ã© £ ¯Ã© ¤ ¨Ã¤ ½  Ã¦Æ' ³Ã¥Å½ »Ã¥â€œ ªÃ¥ ® ¶Ã© ¥ ­Ã© ¦â€ Which restaurant do you want to go to?

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Writing a event vividly Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Writing a event vividly - Essay Example Even with my nervousness, the girl noticed me and came closer, from her marvelous smile, and the first word from her gave me the courage to speak to her. Through the first conversation I could feel love feelings oozing out of my heart, as I conversed with her, Emma, as she told me her name was, was the girl I had been searching for, she was definitely the my destiny and the love of my life. Reading my story, one might think that I am too sentimental as a man, in my mind I now believed that love existed. From that supermarket moment, I laid siege to Emma, I did everything possible to win her heart over, I turned into this romantic guy I never thought I could be. Almost all my activities towards her were romantic, in most cases I found myself thinking about her and how our next date would be. After some time, my tremulous attention, and my unending pursuit made Emma say â€Å"yes† to my proposal of having a relationship with me. Emma and I were soon dating; obviously, we were in love, and no doubt that the relationship was the beginning of the happiest time of my life. At least, I thought that for I was flying high, the voice deep down kept telling me â€Å"you the luckiest man alive.† Every day I was planning something new and interesting to make Emma happy. Every minute I spent away from her seemed like a lifetime, the time I spent with her was the best moments of my life. We even had our places in parks, cinemas, cafes and just in the streets, we enjoyed each other’s time, to some extent, my future was clear Approximately, seven months into our romantic relationship, Emma told me that there was no future for us; apparently, her parents did not see me as a good life partner for their daughter. The case was that Emma’s family was against miscegenation; they were white Americans and did not want representatives of other nations or races to enter into their family. Moreover, there was a good marriage candidate for Emma, a son of her

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Taxes and tariffs on imports Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Taxes and tariffs on imports - Essay Example Second, they create tax revenues for the governments imposing them. In spite of what the goals are, tariffs may not be the most direct or efficient means attaining them. For instance, foreign sellers may reduce their prices to counteract any tariff increase. The net effect is for the consumer-paid price to be different only to some extent, if at all, from the price before the tariff was imposed. As a result, the nation has larger tariff revenues but slight additional protection for the domestic producers. When tariffs do elevate the price of an imported good, consumers are put at a disadvantage, while the import-competing industries are put at an advantage. On the other hand, tariffs can have wider implications. For example, when the U.S. Department of Commerce imposed a high duty on complex flat screens used on laptop computers, the duty was an advantage to some small U.S. screen manufacturers (Salvatore 2005). But it damaged companies such as Apple, Compaq and IBM, who disagree tha t the high duty exaggerated the cost of their products, destabilized their ability to compete abroad and forced them to shift production to other countries. This papers looks at the impacts of tariffs or taxes on imports on a large economy (the U.S.) and a small economy (Kenya). Import tariffs may be of the predetermined variety or they may be ad valorem. Characteristically the importing firm pays the tariff as a tax to the government of the importing country. In order to recover the cost of the tariff the importer charges customers a price at least equal to the import plus the tariff. Because of the tariff, the domestic price of the imported item becomes higher than it would have been with free trade. Imposing taxes or tariffs on foreign products is a form of controlling trade; they are enforced by governments for a variety of reasons. One purpose is simply to create revenues. Another purpose is to lessen the competitiveness of foreign products by

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Benchmarking as an important activity in the analysis of e-Business Essay

Benchmarking as an important activity in the analysis of e-Business Web sites - Essay Example E-business has given every organization that uses it a additional advantage running their businesses. Competition to produce an online website that tells about the organization and its product has also started. In the same way selling products online through a website has also become popular, there are certain advantages attached to it but we wont go into that detail. Another important aspect of running a business online successfully is to check whether an organization's website is according to the standards of its competitors. This can be done using certain techniques like surveys, questionnaires and conducting interviews. This article explored a new technique called benchmarking. Benchmarking is basically evaluating the content of the website in terms of its usefulness and usability compared to your competitors. The importance of this method can be gauged by the fact that the two aspects that are being benchmarked namely usefulness and usability can only determine the actual return your website is giving to the organization. Claiming your website is successful by checking the number of times it has been viewed is useless, instead the benchmarking method makes a lot of sense as it is analyzing the two vital factors that originally decide whether a website is successful or not. If we go 30 years back in time there was no concept of using a computer to communicate to a co-worker or sending an email to your boss for a certain favor. Records were kept on files in a closet. If your boss needed information about last year's sale you had to tell him if he can wait for 2 days, and your boss agreed. Today if you reply to your boss in the same manner it's obvious your boss won't accept your reply, instead it might be possible that you are fired. This gets a bit harsh but this is a fact. Technology has taken great steps all these years and is looking to go even faster as the time moves on. It is important for every person to keep up with the moving technology to survive in this world, especially organizations that are running businesses internationally and on the Internet. Keeping in touch with the technology trend has become a necessity in this case as every organization looks for improving itself with the use of newer and better technology. E-business might seem e asy as to setup a website and conduct your business online, but its not the case and its not as easy as you think. As new and better technologies enter the market an organization has to make sure that it acquires it and makes the best use of it. It is important to keep abreast of technology trends when running an e-business because once a firm starts e-business it is attaching itself to the world of Internet and technology, and if an organization gets involved in this world it has to keep a track of what is going on and what is new so as to make sure it does not lag behind in any field. Q. 3. Comment on one recent technology trend, and discuss how it might affect an e-Business. As technology advances trends are being setup. For example a certain technology becomes famous as it enters the market and everyone gets attracted to it for a while. After 3 or 4 months a better technology comes into being and now people are driven towards this one. This will keep