Monday, September 30, 2019
You are provided to answer the following questions either orally or written as agreed with your lecturer. Please write your answers very clearly. If you do not understand any of the questions please ask your lecturer for defined explanation Why is it necessary to clearly identify, before designing product and service offerings, customer needs, and what are some of the less obvious service aspects that might inform purchasing decisions? What are the questions that all customers ask themselves (consciously or subconsciously) before they commit to a purchase and how is the presented product/ service bundle likely to affect a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s purchasing decision? Being able to provide good customer service is not an innate skill. It requires that employees receive appropriate training and learn to understand their role/s with regard to customer service. This applies to those employees who are in direct contact with customers and those who have no direct contact with customers. Employees who have good customer service skills will generally encounter fewer complaints. Describe the ways in which employees can learn the skills needed to provide good customer service. In any organisation there are both internal and external customers. TheseÃ are all part of the customerÃ¢â¬âsupplier chain. For the customer/ end-user to receive quality products/ services it is necessary that all aspects of the customerÃ¢â¬âsupply chain meet specific quality objectives. Who actually sets these quality standards and how are they set? How can an organisation encourage suppliersÃ¢â¬âboth internal and externalÃ¢â¬âto participate in actively ensuring quality standards are maintained so that fewer customer complaints are likely? How can you collect customer feedback about customer service levels, their satisfaction with products and services and any complaints they might have? Identify and explain the stages that should be followed when dealing with a customer complaint. Identify and explain the steps in the problem-solving process.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Health Care Providers Respiratory therapists care for people of all ages with restricted breathing problems such as emphysema, chronic obstructed pulmonary disease and asthma. Respiratory therapists may work in hospitals, long term care facilities, physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ offices, and home health services. Respiratory therapists must have an associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, although most have a both an associates and bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree from an accredited college. They are licensed in all states except Alaska (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012). Licensure requires passing a state certification or professional examination. Respiratory therapists teach patients how to use inhalers and aerosol machines. They provide counseling on smoking cessation. Also set-up, connects, and monitors ventilators for patients that cannot breathe on their own. Respiratory therapists also perform chest physiotherapy on cystic fibrosis patients to remove mucus from their lungs to make it easier for them to breathe. They also perform dia gnostic testing such as Pulmonary Function Testing and Methocholine Challenge Testing. The Pulmonary Function Tests provides physicians information on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s lung capacity and breathing ability to assist them in prescribing the appropriate medication. The Methocholine Challenge Test determines if the patient has reversible asthma disease. The Respiratory therapist also performs a test called polysomnogram, a test to determine if a person has sleep apnea (breathing pauses during sleep). The annual median pay for Respiratory therapists as of May 2010 is $54, 280 (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012). Employment of Respiratory therapists is expected to grow 28% from 2010 to 20120 (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012) because of the rise in the in the number of elderly with increased incident of emphysema, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia and other respiratory diseases that restrict lung function or cause permanent damage. Also affecting the increase in the need for respiratory therapists is the continued use of all forms of smoking, air pollution and respiratory emergencies. A podiatrist is commonly known as a foot doctor, but is really a doctor of podiatric medicine (DPM). Podiatrists treat and diagnosis conditions of the feet, ankles, and lower legs. Podiatrists must complete four years of training in a podiatric medical school, after earning a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree and three years of residency training in a hospital setting. Podiatrists must be licensed in every state. To become licensed they have to pay a fee and passÃ a state exam. Podiatrists can choose to specialize in various fields such as pediatrics, wound care, surgery, sports medicine, or diabetic care. Podiatrists can earn board certification by taking an exam after advanced training and clinical experience. The American Board of Podiatric Medicine and the American Board of Podiatric Surgery are the two certifying boards. Podiatrists traditionally work in private offices either alone or with partners, hospitals, and long-term care. The median annual salary for a podiatrist as of 2010 was $118,030 per year (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012). The job outlook for podiatrist looks very good in the future, partly due to the limited number of podiatric medical schools and the amount of older podiatrists retiring. Education for chiropractors is one of the stringent of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s healthcare providers. The chiropractor uses spinal manipulation to relieve the symptoms of low back pain, neck pain, and headaches. Chiropractors believe your body has a natural way of healing itself, the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s structure, nerves, bones, muscles, and joints are all enter-related, and chiropractic treatment helps to balance your body and promote self-healing. When a person decides to enter chiropractor school he must have already completed fours of pre-medical undergraduate education. Once accepted into an accredited chiropractic college, four to five years of intense professional study is standard. Due to the hands on approach to chiropractic medicine most of the training is done in the clinical training. Because of their extensive training, chiropractors are able to diagnose health problems and refer patients to other healthcare providers as needed. Doctors of chiropractic are required to pass a national exam to become state licensed prior to practicing on their own. Chiropractors work in a variety of settings, hospitals, private practices, and schools. The median annual salary for a chiropractor varies depending on the location and setting, ranging from $ 31,120 to $142, 000 (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2013). Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition, Respiratory Therapists, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/respiratorytherapists.htm http://www.apma.org/learn/content.cfm?ItemNumber=992&navItemNumber=558 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition, Podiatrists, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/podiatrists.htm http://www.acatoday.org/level3_css.cfm?T1ID=13&T2ID=61&T3ID=151 http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes291011.htm http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/chiropractic http://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/respiratory-therapists
Saturday, September 28, 2019
In 1987, August WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"FencesÃ¢â¬ was a part of his Pittsburg Cycle of dramas of the 20th Century. These plays were used to Ã¢â¬Å"examine important elements of African American experiencesÃ¢â¬ (Gardner 1331). The symbolisms in the play are used to tell the late life story of Troy Maxon and his relationship with family. From the start of the play, there is conflict and foreshadowing that shows TroyÃ¢â¬â¢s own belief that he has failed in life and that the world did not give him what he deserved. He believes that he has to venture outside of his family to find relief. At the start of the play, Wilson takes the audience into the seemingly happy life of Troy Maxon. The author then makes it clear that he felt like a failure and was not happy. The first symbol that is seen is the difference between the white people and the black people. Troy takes a stand and asks why black people never get to drive the trash trucks. Most of his coworkers believe that he will be fired. This theme of not being appreciated and believing that something is not enough is seen through all the symbols used in this drama. A second symbol seen is sports and dreams of the future. Troy had been in the Negro League and played baseball until he was over 40 years old. The problem presents itself when Troy is overlooked by the recently desegregated professional baseball league because of his age. His dreams of playing for the professional white league were smashed, and he believed that he had nothing to show his worth in the later years. This defeat in his career also defeated Troy mentally. From then on, he saw his family and his life as a failure that he wanted to escape from, yet he could not shake the feeling of responsibility to them. TroyÃ¢â¬â¢s first son, Lyons, is accepted by Troy. Lyons is a failure in TroyÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes and so Troy believes that Cory is no better than him. Lyons wants to be a musician, but he is not very successful. Troy sees Lyons failure in music career to be equivalent to his failure to get into the professional league. He believes that his son will eventually take an unskilled job and end up just like his father. In the last scene of the play it is revealed that Lyons did end up defeated, but not to the extent of his father. His love of music still lived and he was still pursuing his dream. Unlike his son Lyon, TroyÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling of failure is evident in his relationship with his son, Cory. Cory is an excellent football player, and yet, Troy refuses to acknowledge his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s ability even when he is recruited by a college. Troy will not let Cory succeed where he failed and refuses to let Cory go to college on a football scholarship. In Act 1, Scene 3, Cory asks Troy Ã¢â¬Å"How come you ainÃ¢â¬â¢t never liked me? Ã¢â¬ (Wilson 1075). Troy is angry at this question and tells Cory that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦itÃ¢â¬â¢s my duty to take care of you. I owe a responsibility to you! Ã¢â¬ (Wilson 1076). However, even before this it is obvious that Troy sees Cory as nothing but an annoyance that continues until the final scene, when Cory arrives for TroyÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral. TroyÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with his wife Rose is an unfaithful one. He is constantly stating that there is no better woman or wife, yet he has an affair with Alberta. Through this diversity, Rose is eventually presented as a model of the strong African American woman. She has given her life to Troy, and yet he has an affair with Alberta. He explains the affair as a way to ignore the responsibilities of his failed life. This aggravates Rose because he has never taken her feelings, wants or needs into consideration. Troy continues to be married to Rose, but also continues his affair with Alberta while Rose knows about the whole thing. Rose even accepts the call from the hospital when Alberta dies while giving birth. The full strength of Rose is not shown until Troy brings home his love child. He asks Rose to help him raise her. RoseÃ¢â¬â¢s response shows the intensity of her strength. She says, Ã¢â¬Å"From right nowÃ¢â¬ ¦this child got a mother. But you is a womanless manÃ¢â¬ (Wilson 1099). Rose makes it apparent that this child will have as good a life as Rose can give her and she will show no animosity or jealousy towards the child. Troy, on the other hand, will have the responsibility of the child, Rose, Lyons, and Cory while receiving nothing in return. Throughout all these trials, the fence is essential in the explanation of TroyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Rose had requested the fence, and it symbolized her family being held together. The fact that Troy never really worked on the fence showed that he was not in love with Rose, but felt a responsibility to her. He wanted his freedom and the fence symbolized his imprisonment. The symbol of the fence throughout this play connects everything back to the fact that Troy Maxon was unhappy with his life, and felt as if he were a failure. He felt no real responsibility to Lyons, hence their relationship was better. Troy was jealous of Cory and reminded of his failures by Rose. Wilson used the fence to tell this story. It was not just a story of a life seen as a failure, but a look into the mind and thoughts of an African American man of the 1950s. Works Cited Wilson, August. Fences. Literature: A Portable Anthology. Ed. Janet E. Gardner, 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford/ St. MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2012. 1053-1111. Print. Gardner, Janet, Beverly Lawn, Jack Ridl, Peter Schakel, eds. Literature: A Portable Anthology. 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford/St. MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2012. Print.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Hypothetical Human Resources Department - Essay Example Increasingly, organizations will seek HR professionals who can align HR strategy with business strategy (Bundy, 3). In this paper here is the review of Human Resource roles and responsibilities that will be assigning to this department in response to trends in globalization, technology, diversity, e-business and ethics. Human Resource professionals are increasing their scope when it comes to searching for talent. Globalization has enabled HR professionals to seek candidates from around the world. This trend towards globalization brings up several new factors to consider when hiring employees. For example, HR practices must take into consideration differences in culture and business practices. It would be a mistake to send someone who has been an excellent manager in one country to a brand new country and expect him to be as successful as he was in his own country. Before selecting employees to work in another country, HR must take into consideration the employees ability to understand and respect the cultural and business norms of the host country. In addition, even hiring at home may involve selecting employees from other countries. It is estimated by 2006 immigrants will likely account for an additional million persons in the U.S. workforce (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart & Wright, 23). Leading todays HR function involves much more than having the right programs in place for employees and managers. Now, one of HRs most important responsibilities is leveraging technology and the Internet to support both the function and the business (Mercer, 2006). Advances in technology have had huge impacts on how HR professionals manage Human Resources. Management and implementation of Human Resource information technology solutions now include highly developed Human Resources programs often referred to as HRIS (human resource information systems) that are used in an effort to maximize productivity throughout an
Thursday, September 26, 2019
How would George Fredrickson explain Sherman Alexies - Essay Example Manifest destiny is an idea held by most Americans that America would expand its boundaries throughout the continent. However, slavery and the existence of many tribes hindered the realization of the idea of manifest destiny. Fredrickson uses four models to explain how different ethnic and racial groups that people view as different should relate with one another. However, this essay focuses on one of the models, which is assimilation. The essay will examine Sherman AlexieÃ¢â¬â¢s essay and how Sherman applies FredricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s model of assimilation. Assimilation is one of the best models of explaining the racial and ethnic differences between different tribes living in America. Assimilation is an exemplary model of explaining gender identity and the best approach to unite different social groups in the world. The main aim of assimilation is to establish a stable American culture where all ethnic groups are equal. Good understanding of the model requires one to know some terms that the model uses. Some of these terms include dominant cultures, inferior cultures and out-groups among other terms. The model does not call for a racist approach to ethnic and racial integration but rather considers the plight of all cultures involved, including the inferior cultures. However, the dominant culture has some characteristics of superiority and purity. Assimilation involves invitation of minority cultures to join the American culture through ethnic integration. In most cases, few aspects of the minority culture are preserved or passed on to the new integrated American culture. American has applied this model throughout its history. For instance, in the twentieth century, the model applied to large numbers of European immigrants who had migrated to America (Fredrickson 102). Other social theories can apply this model. For instance, equality of men and women can apply the model of assimilation in trying to understand the basic facts surrounding it
English literature - Assignment Example The title of the story is absurd but it has a lot of meaning in it. It is amplified with the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s symbolism and means a lot of thing. Phoenix is not just the name of a city situated in Arizona. According to Egyptian mythology, it is a bird that arises from its own ashes and takes rebirth. Phoenix is thus a symbol of regeneration and immortality. Thomas and victor too, like a Phoenix, travels to the city of Phoenix during the hot Arizona summer and step inside the trailer of VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s father just to reclaim and build that which has been lost once. Figuratively or literally, they to take the rebirth just like a Phoenix. So, the title is symbolic of the plot and bears a similar analogy with the mythology. Gryphon is a monster with wings, having the head of an eagle and body of a lion. In the short story by Charles Baxter, Ms. Firenze refers to the Gryphon and states that she has seen the animal in real life. Gryphon is constituted from things of this world but many things combined together and no one achieves that unless they imagine about the creature. Similarly, Ms. Firenze feels that one must leave the world of concrete objects sometimes and travel to the wonderland - the land of creativity and imagination created of objects outside our world. So in this way Gryphon may be important and very much suitable for the title of the story as it celebrates the spirit of the story. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s experience about Gryphon is so significant because it again makes a link with the core theme of the story. Gryphon is a tinge of a created world and Baxter never wanted Tommy to influence completely his readers, so he took the initiative to portray through Gryphon story that there are so many things beyond what we see and what we
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Alcohol Based Solution and Standard Handwashing - Essay Example It concluded that hand-rubbing with liquid aqueous alcoholic solution could be safely used as an alternative to traditional hand-scrubbing in surgical practices. 2. The research done by Girou, et al. at 3 intensive care units in a university hospital in France, 12 healthcare workers were allocated to hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol based solution and 11 were allocated to hand-washing with antiseptic soap. It concluded that the median percentage reduction in bacterial contamination with hand-rubbing was significantly higher than with hand-washing. 3. Research conducted by Karabay, et al. 35 nurses were randomly selected from a nursing staff of 141 and divided into 2 groups: hand rubbing and hand washing. Hand rubbing with alcohol-based solutions significantly reduced the bacterial contamination of the hands of the nurses more than hand washing with an antimicrobial soap. Compliance was also better in the hand rubbing group than in the hand washing group. While framing our hypothesis we should consider the objective of our research. The purpose of this research is to compare hand-hygiene and skin condition after hand-rubbing with an alcohol based solution or washing our hands with an antiseptic soap. So, the primary object of our comparison would be 'hand-hygiene'. To measure hand-hygiene, we make a natural assumption that "Hands with lesser bacterial contamination are more hygienic". ... So, the primary object of our comparison would be 'hand-hygiene'. To measure hand-hygiene, we make a natural assumption that "Hands with lesser bacterial contamination are more hygienic". Therefore we frame the following hypothesis as our 'Null Hypothesis'. H0: The median percentage reduction in bacterial contamination using Alcohol Based Solution (ABS) is greater than that with hand-washing with liquid soap solution (LSS). i.e. H0: MeABS > MeLSS Our 'Null Hypothesis', in simpler words states that by using Alcohol Based Solutions we kill more bacteria on our hands and achieve disinfection better than liquid soap solutions. Our 'Null Hypothesis' thus assumes the objective of our research to be true. So, in a similar manner we can also state our 'Alternative Hypothesis' as: Ha: The median percentage reduction in bacterial contamination using Alcohol Based Solution is less than or equal to that with hand-washing. i.e. Ha: MeABS MeLSS Step 2: To Formulate an Analysis Plan For our analysis, we would be using the data obtained from three separate research projects carried out on similar topic. 1. Research conducted by Parienti, et al. at six surgical services from teaching and non-teaching hospitals in France, conducted between January 1, 2000 and May 1, 2001. In their research, "surgical services used two hand cleaning methods alternatively every month: a hand-rubbing protocol with 75% aqueous alcoholic solution and a hand-scrubbing protocol with antiseptic preparation." (Parienti et al, 2002) Thirty-day surgical site infection rates were the primary factor being monitored. 2. In the research done by Girou, et al. at 3 intensive care units in a university hospital in France in 2002, 23 nurses and nursing assistants had volunteered to participate. "12
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Ethics in Health Management - Essay Example b. Ideals: justice, beneficence, receptance, loving kindness and compassion. If the lady is not taken good care of then she might end up succumbing to the illness due to lack of medical care. Living in an untidy house combined with poor feeding might also raise the risks of her being infected by other diseases. Lack of care may make feel ignored and that the family does not recognize her as being one of them. My situation is that of my 89 years old aunt who lives alone and has no other family around her. She lives in a distant town from where I stay, and that makes it hard for me to monitor her condition. I pay her a visit and to my disappointment find her house in a mess and all I do is worry about her wellbeing and security. The other thing that troubles me is that she has a medical condition, and I fear that she might no longer be able to control her diabetic condition, as she may not remember to go for medical check-ups, as it is required for her. In most cases, the elderly have been marginalized hence lacking the needed health care services entitled for the aged. Sometimes funds that are secured to help the aged are withdrawn: citing lack of compliance or self-care (Caroselli, 2003; Metell and Moo, 1998). This is unethical. In this case, I have the obligation of ensuring that she accesses the rightful medical care she deserves, and she stays in a clean organised environment. Despite the fact that she already declined being taken an institution of the aged, it seems that it would be the only rightful thing to do, and would be for her own bosom, because of her medical condition. In the institution, the required level of attention would be given to her, and a medical expert would be available in case her medical condition got worse. She would also have company from age mates, unlike, if she was transferred to a younger persons place, hence she would not get as bored. This has already triggered
Monday, September 23, 2019
Woman Changing Tradition - Research Paper Example They have made up their minds to come out of their houses and work like men. They want their rights and want to do all that men are supposed to do because their own gender roles make them feel inferior. They want to be at the workplace, in the politics, and in the armed forces. This has been inculcated in their minds by way of strong feminism which comes with the agenda of women liberation. This paper discusses the hot debate whether women should be allowed to change gender roles or not by shedding light on the way feminist theories are changing the trend. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s start with explaining the difference between sex and gender which will show to the reader how gender roles come into existence. Sex refers to physical anatomy and biological differences between male and female; while, gender means the characteristics by which the society defines who is male and who is female (Roughgarden 22). Every culture has different concepts of gender roles that are assigned to males and females, a nd these are the gender roles that define the masculinity and femininity of an individual regardless of his physical anatomy or, in other words, sex. Ã¢â¬Å"Men and women are social categoriesÃ¢â¬ and socially Ã¢â¬Å"we have the freedom to decide who counts as a man and who counts as a womanÃ¢â¬ (Roughgarden 23). ... e main aim of contemporary popular culture is to refigure the body, hence issues regarding the body such as its shape, age and other requirements are the hot subject matter for magazines, books, journals, TV shows and even popular science. He states that these issues regarding the body raise questions about body frailty which creates concerns about gender differences, women being treated differently from men and the inferiority they experience as a result. For this reason, the issues regarding body and the gender differences encompassing the popular culture are the main concern of current feminist theories. Liberal women talk about women being treated differently than men, that is, gender discrimination that is favored basically by male domination. They talk about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding about sexuality, their experience at the workplace and how they manage their families alongside work. They are also concerned with women working with disciplines like history, social sciences, p hilosophy, arts and anthropology. The other important thing this feminism has to say is that women can tend to change the whole scenario by using their practical and empirical knowledge. This would help construct Ã¢â¬Å"a future non-sexist societyÃ¢â¬ (Humm 5) which is the focus of attention of feminism. There are some feminists who characterize women as slaves in their houses doing work for their families without getting paid and thus their houses become a sort of prison for them. This is often referred to as domesticity. They say that this domesticity has to be ruled out from womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives if they want themselves to be treated at an equal status with men and considered as modern. The issues of domesticity and gender discrimination define how todayÃ¢â¬â¢s woman reacts to her inferior position in
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Abercrombie Fitch (AF) Essay Products (Revised): Abercrombie Fitch Co. is a leading specialty clothing retailer. It always utilizes sex appeal to sell its products. AF often uses semi-nude models with rock hard abs on their new store opening ceremony and puts posters on the wall of store with hot semi-nude Caucasian. AF prefers to decorate their store with dark jungle feel. All of those strategies aim the same target, the sex attraction. A feature which can make a huge distinction from other brands is that AF doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stock XL or XXL sizes for women clothing. It claimed that they want Ã¢â¬Å"cool kidsÃ¢â¬ . The reason why they took this strategy is because the company wants to inspire consumers to strive for the Abercrombie Fitch Ã¢â¬Å"lifestyle.Ã¢â¬ Abercrombie Fitch sells a Ã¢â¬Å"lifestyleÃ¢â¬ of popularity that people aspire to have (Reichert, 2003). Their advertisements imply that AF is a fastidious and attractive brand and if you can have their clothing and then you can be the one of them. This characteristic makes the market polarized heavily. In the one hand, this declaration attracts some customers of its target groups indeed. Because people always want to be considered as Ã¢â¬Å"chicÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"fashionableÃ¢â¬ . So if there is a way can make them feel being cool, they will go for it. And they also want to beat others in anyways. AF gives the opportunities for those people exactly. The Ã¢â¬Å"not coolÃ¢â¬ people even canÃ¢â¬â¢t fit in the clothing of AF. Also as Jeffries said, those Ã¢â¬Å"cool kidsÃ¢â¬ have their Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ friends, and then AF can become a new fashion. On the other hand, this overt and cruel design results a consequence of losing profits of excluding customers. They canÃ¢â¬â¢t fit in those small sizes so they wont buy them certainly. The worse thing is that they may hate this brand. Now there are many video on YouTube of blaming AFÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. The target markets of AFÃ¢â¬â¢s products are divided in detail. It aims the younger generation in the US generally. The target market falls between those ages because 14 years old is usually when a teenager begins dressing themselves and shopping for themselves, so naturally they want to dressÃ something cool and attractive. They target the groups in two ways. One of them is by the styles of products. Younger people like to wear in casual sports style like hoodies or joggers more than mature adults. They prefer chic style than OL. However it also leads the loss of other people who are excluded in these groups. Because most of the products are designed for youthful people, mature adults may think itÃ¢â¬â¢s too young to wear which is not good for expanding market. Unfortunately, mature people have stronger power in purchasing. So AF lose potential customers in unawareness. The second way is their store style. The decorations with semi-nude posters are offensive to older generatio ns and they even donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to walk in the stores. In conclusion, AF puts their products in an extreme position. AF only serves for the spectacular people who are targeted by clothing favor and size. The detailed target makes it easier to get the favor of specific customers. Price: The price of Abercrombie Fitch clothing from Ã £10 to Ã £150.Most of the tops are around Ã £30-Ã £60 and the bottoms are Ã £50-Ã £90. The coats and jackets are more expensive (more than Ã £90). Although it claims that they are providing quality and long lasting clothing, the price is a little bit higher considering their target consumers. Because the young adults usually canÃ¢â¬â¢t be independence of finance. However the young people often buy things on their instincts rather than rationality. So the high price may not be an obstacle of purchasing as long as they firmly believe the messages that AF is trying to imply (having AF clothing and being attractive and beautiful). Moreover the price represents not only their products but also their brand. AF puts itself at a high level of fashion. It makes the consumers strive for it instead of earning them. The high price can be a label of high level and it exactly caters to its attractive style which AF is always trying to sell. In addition, AF barely puts their clothing on sale. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s largely because of their willingness to change everything in order to hang on to a non-price position and a revenue-driven profit formula. (WHY ABERCROMBIE FITCH (ALMOST) NEVER PUTSÃ ANYTHING ON SALE, BY MICHAEL E. RAYNOR AND MUMTAZ AHMED) After the economic depression more and more people focus on the price. Unfortunately competitors such as HM have relied heavily on discounts to gain market share while AF has struggled with its premium brand position and pricing. The slow adaptation of price promotions has positioned the company behind its competitors. (Strategic Analysis for: Abercrombie Fitch Co.) People turn to other brands because they canÃ¢â¬â¢t accept the high price of AF. For Abercrombie Fitch, how to balance the price and the high level position is one of their problem. Place Abercrombie Fitch has stores in 17 countries in the world including 323 stores. However there are 301 stores in the US and most of other countries only have one or two stores in their capital or booming city. In the USA, AF build their store along the coast more than in the middle because of the economics. Choosing the main cities to build stores can provide more customers because they pay more attention on dressing than small cities. People who live in big city can also have more purchasing power. They live in a higher level and care more about the brand. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s exactly befit the propose of AF. In addition itÃ¢â¬â¢s a good way to show the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude by building stores in big cities. It implies AF is at high level as the big city to the country. AF came from the US so itÃ¢â¬â¢s common to have a lot of stores in the US. In the mean time it also opens new market in Europe and Asia slowly. Because of the culture differences, every country has its own style of dressing so every single store in overseas has to be careful or it may get a financial loss. With the development of network, AF established the online shopping system. As other brands, AF can deliver the items to mostly address. It also has complete return/exchange policies. This channel expands the scale of customers. The limits of regions are most gone which depends on the shippingÃ situation of specific areas. People can sit in their room and buy commodities by internet. This way is more convenient than the traditional way and more suitable for the modern young people.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Immigration In America Immigration played a very important role in American history and is perhaps one of the greatest controversial issues of our present time. There are many sides to immigration, and no matter where you are from, most views on immigration are saddening. Most immigrants lead lives that the rest of us only read about in books. Something that we must remember is that at one time in our history, American encouraged relatively open immigration to settle its empty lands before the era of rapid communications and transportation. Mexicos relationship to the United States has a long history. In 1835 Texas, then Mexican territory, declared its independence and ten years later was annexed to the United States. After that came the U.S.-Mexican War. When it was over, the U.S. had acquired half the land that once belonged to Mexico, including all or parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming. With the land, the United States of course got Mexicans, many of them. The California Gold Rush brought in more, and others came later, lured by the prospect of making a better living here. Sometimes the Mexicans were invited, as they were during World War II by a treaty that allowed an unlimited number of temporary workers to fill agricultural jobs here. By the end of the program in 1964, more than 4.5 million Mexicans had come to work temporarily in the United States, far exceeding the number of permanent legal immigrants. Legal immigration, which had also increased steadily over the years, was eventually checked. But illegal immigrants, without having to cross an ocean to get there as did immigrants from Europe and Asia, started pouring in at the rate of hundreds of thousands a year. By the early 1980s, some 55 percent of all undocumented immigrants in the U.S. came from Mexico, accounting for an estimated two-thirds of all Mexican immigration. The U.S. government has cracked down over the years. It has erected barbed wire fences and high metal walls along the long border. It has raided businesses that purposely employ illegal workers in order to pay lower wages. Some of these businesses degrade the immigrant. They make them work endless hours and they do not pay overtime. They offer no insurance benefits and they allow them to live in very poor living conditions. Most of the immigrants do not know their rights. But still the immigrants come, sometimes risking their lives to cross the guarded borders, and when they do, most manage to keep their ties to their families in Mexico, something that few other immigrant groups can do. Immigration has lasted for many decades and to this day it shows little sign of slowing down. Immigrants come into the United States from all over the world. They come in for reasons such as to gain a better or higher education. Some come in seeking their fortune. Most immigrants come in to the United States because they have nothing, and only want to be able to survive. This is especially true for Mexican immigrants because of their countrys poverty. The United States became a poor Mexicans protection, his escape hatch, his alternative to the submission expected of him in the Old World. This may jar Americans who see the rough lives many immigrants leadÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦To the man who departs pesoless yet returns with cash to spend, the United States affords dignity, respect, and sweet vindication. 1. Sam Quinones, Antonios Gun and Delfinos Dream. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007), 8. Not every man that leaves their county to seek a better life in the United States of America is able to fulfill their dream. This may be because some U.S. companies may contribute unwittingly to the exploitation of foreign workers. According to an article written in Business Week by Steve Hamm and Moira Herbst, In some cases companies target young men and women hungry to get well-paid tech jobs in the United States and charge them with exorbitant fees for visas, which is not allowed under American immigration laws. Even after paying, some workers never get a visa; those who do may find that the company they paid has no job for them. 2 Steve Hamm and Moira Herbst, Business Week: Americas High-Tech Sweat Shops, (The McGraw-Hill Companies, October 12, 2009), p. 034. Those immigrants that go back to Mexico to leave their families money and gifts are demonstrating to their people some of the American ways. Millions of money is transported from the U.S. into Mexico every year by illegal immigrants. Yet there are those times when law enforcers humiliate the immigrants by taking their belongings away from them. They take their hard earned money and the immigrants are deported, going home with nothing to show and penny-less as before. Then there are those that not only take their belongings, but also abuse them. The book Tangled Destinies: Latin America The United States by Coerver and Hall, talks about many incidents dealing with immigration. Two particular incidents really caught my attention. This is what I read, Two incidents in 1996 brought the tensions over illegal immigration, particularly from Mexico, into high relief. On 1 April 1996, Riverside County sheriffs deputies in southern California were videotaped beating two unresisting illegal al iens, while others scattered, after an hour-long, high-speed chase. One was a woman, Alicia Sotero Vasquez, who was dragged by her hair out of the pickup in which the illegals had been riding. Clearly ill and terrified, she appeared on television the next day with the Mexican consul to protest her treatment. Latino protests in Los Angeles accelerated through the week, culminating but not ending in a 6,000-person protest march in downtown Los Angeles on April 7. He two aliens brought suit against the County, later settling for $740,000. 3 Don M. Coerver, Linda B. Hall, Tangled Destinies: Latin America The United States, (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1999), p. 214. The second incident involved seven migrants that were killed in an accident. They were assumed planning to evade the Border Patrol and instead had a taste of bad luck and ended up in a ditch. In neither of these two cases were the victims immediately identified, when to begin with the victims in both ca ses were supposed to have been smugglers that the Border Patrol was searching for. Unfortunately the real smugglers got away while innocent people were brutalized and some even killed. The question is, Could this have been prevented if handled differently by law officers? The Mexican migrant, also known as a Wetback, who only violates the immigration law does not consider himself a criminal or lawbreaker. He is playing a game, trying to outwit the authorities, in hopes of bettering himself. To be sure the stakes are high (his survival), but there are few sanctions. If he stays clear of the drug traffic, stealing, drunkenness, fighting, etc., that is if he does not violate local, state, or other federal laws, the worst that can happen to him when apprehended is a trip to the closest detention center. He is held there for a short period of time and then he is taken back to Mexico. This procedure seems a rather inconvenience because, more than likely, the immigrant heads for the United States once again, in hopes of returning to his job. Knowing the life in the U.S. as compared to the one in Mexico will keep him going back, regardless of the inconvenience. Becoming a wetback has been more the role of the male, since it entails long journeys, working with groups of men, hard labor, and a dangerous undertaking. A small percentage of the aliens who are apprehended are women and children. Unskilled women can work in a variety of jobs in agriculture, as dishwashers in restaurants, as hotel maids, as housemaids, or in custodial jobs. Nevertheless; they are most likely treated like the slaves of our history. Why would any individual in Mexico want to play this game? Many times they learn of commuters and they hear the exaggerated stories about the wealth of the United States, the jobs available, the high wages and the ease of crossing the border. It is not difficult to comprehend the poverty-induced desperation which will compel a man to endure whatever hardship and humiliation in order to be able to obtain a few pesos for the sheer survival of his family and himself. Most wetbacks understand that they will not be successful. But when one is at the bottom of the social heap, there is no place or position below. This leaves people with hope. Hope that they can hold on to a job without official detection. Many wetbacks have high aspirations. Some talk of saving money to buy land back in Mexico. Others seek to buy a car and go into the taxi business. Some wetbacks may allow themselves to be apprehended by border patrol agents because they feel that the United States prisons offer more than the poor rural areas in which they reside. Once they are apprehended though, they realize that they have to commit a crime or violate deportation regulations in order to actually be imprisoned. The results, they commit a crime and hope to get caught. Once in prison in the United States, they are provided with medical care, adult education classes, good clothes, warm and fairly comfortable living accommodations, and three meals per day. It is also possible for a prisoner to work in one of several occupations and send a check home to the family. In his book, Immigration: Opposing Viewpoints, Marcus Eli Ravage writes that Immigrants cannot easily become part of the American culture. He writes about living conditions that are degrading to immigrants and about the never ending hours of labor that immigrants work in sweatshops or on the streets. They pay high rent as if they were paying for extravagant apartments, yet this is not the case. 4 Marcus Eli Ravage, Immigration: Opposing Viewpoints. (San Diego: Greenhaven Press), l992. This book has different viewpoints on immigration. Lets look at illegal immigration in a different prospective. Yes, it is human to feel sadness for the migrant that is only trying to survive. Many of us Americans are doing the same thing. Some of us multitask with two and even three jobs. Some of us are lower-class American citizens, yet others are even classified below that, which is poverty. Look at the many single-parent families in America. These families, when facing tragedys such as divorce, fall from one class to another in a matter of days. What about the many Americans being laid off? They are losing their homes, and have to completely change their lifestyles. Some are working jobs they never before thought they would. For the many families in crisis in America, life for them is similar to the lives that most migrants have to face. Sometimes the only difference is that we are American citizens, and they are not. Another issue is that in which a migrant is hired for a job before an American because of the ability for the employer to pay lower wages, and be okay with it. Most migrants accept what is offered, as long as they are able to provide for their families. This causes ill feelings towards Americans that are also trying to provide for their own families. Sometimes people have immigrant women cleaning their houses for very low wages, and when those employees are no longer with them, they find it hard to pay higher wages to the U.S. citizen willing to do the job. Who is in the wrong? People have different opinions about issues such as these. Many say that America is supposed to be the land for ALL people. What happens when there are more people than there are resources, such as in Africa where people are dying of starvation? There is not enough medicine for everyone so people are dying of many illnesses. This is not what America wants to happen. Yet there are millions of immigrants coming into the United States. Yes, some become legal immigrants in time. But do they abide by our laws? Do they make an effort to learn the English language? Or do they tell you they do not speak English. It seems that they want to be here so bad yet they do not care to learn the language. An article in the USA Today, July 30, 2010 issue talks about the problems that the state of Arizona is encountering as a consequence of illegal immigration. A retired Army sergeant says that when he approaches Spanish-speaking grocery store clerks in his hometown of Buckeye, near Phoenix, they rarely help him. They reply, No Ingles. 5 Alan Gomez and Kevin J ohnson, USA Today, Friday, July 30, 2010. 3A. Many states feel that the federal government is not controlling the illegal immigrants coming into the states. They feel that as a result our schools are overcrowded. There is much more violence in our cities, and states are facing economic and environmental problems. 6 USA, 3A. Is it time to put a stop to this ongoing situation that has worsened throughout the years? An Arizona Republican Governor, Jan Brewer definitely believes that the problem must be addressed. Jan Brewer is taking the immigration crisis in Arizona into her own hands. A new immigration law, the Arizona SB 1070 law, requires police to check the immigration status of people they lawfully stop and suspect are in the country illegally. Other states have immigrant laws as well. Colorado restricts undocumented immigrants from receiving in-state tuition. Nebraska requires verification of immigration status to obtain public benefits. There are hundreds of immigration-related laws on the books across the United States that regulate employment, law enforcement, education, benefits and health care, but Arizonas strict new law has generated the most controversy. As a result many people have been arrested for protesting and causing chaos in Arizona. According to the El Paso Times, The U.S. Department of Justice filed a lawsuit to stop the Arizona law from taking effect on July 29, saying that immigration policy is a national responsibility and a patchwork of state laws will only create more problems than it solves. 7 El Paso Times, June 18, 2010, 4A. But according to experts, that is precisely what exists. During the first three months of 2010, lawmakers introduced more than 1,000 bills and resolutions, though it is too early to tell how many will become law. Bills on topics such as employment verification and drivers license requirements are on the table in 45 states. Legislators in five states-South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Rhode Island and Michigan-have introduced similar bills to Arizonas SB 1070. 8 El Paso Times, 4A. Many believe that because of the federal governments negligence to face immigration responsibilities the states are scrambling. States have a long history of enacting immigration laws. In 1996, after Congress denied welfare to most legal immigrants, states stepped in with laws to provide safety-net services. After the September 11 attacks, state lawmakers passed bills aimed at protecting national security. People were concerned about dangerous immigrants in their midst and thought they should take matters into their own hands. The increase in state laws parallels the changing settlement patterns of undocumented immigrants. Between 1990 and 2008, illegal immigration slowed significantly in California but grew in Georgia, North Carolina and other states because those states are not the typical immigrant-receiving states and therefore are not accustomed to having large immigrant populations. Because of this Arizona law, undocumented immigrants who decide to leave the United States because of increasing enforcement and decreasing job prospects now face one more obstacle: the threat of arrest and deportation by border officers inspecting outbound traffic. When illegal immigrants are detected trying to leave the country, they are not just ushered across the line. Instead, their information is entered into a database before they are allowed to return to Mexico. 9 The Arizona Republic, Aug.3,2010. The objective is not to deter illegal immigrants who want to leave America but to catch those who have criminal records or are involved in smuggling. Round the clock screening of southbound traffic is being conducted by officials. The scrutiny is designed to catch smugglers delivering currency and firearms to Mexican cartels. Immigrants coming into the United States for the purpose of doing illegal activity will have to face consequences. Arizonas climate is scorching hot and almost unbearable in the summer. Temperatures may go up to the 120s, especially in the desert. Whatever the temperature, people are still making the attempt to get into the United States, but more than ever, people are risking their lives to return home, regardless of the heat. Associated Presss Amanda Lee Myers writes that The number of deaths among undocumented immigrants crossing the Arizona desert from Mexico is soaring so high this month that the medical examiners office that handles the bodies is using a refrigerated truck to store some of them. 10Associated Press, July 18, 2010. Myers writes that Dr. Bruce Parks, a medical examiner in Pima, Arizona has stated that his office, which handles immigrant bodies from three counties, is storing 250 immigrant bodies from July 1 to July 15.11 Associated Press, 4A. Authorities believe the high number of deaths are likely due to above-average and unrelenting heat in southern Arizona this month and on going tighter border security that pushes immigrants to more re mote, rugged and dangerous terrain. KOAT TV meteorologist Joe Diaz reported in mid July that Tucsons average nighttime lows in the first 15 days of July are the hottest for that period in recorded history. What is our President doing about this new Arizona immigration law? President Obama told the nation that he wants a nationwide immigration law. He wants immigration reform and says that Arizona has taken a step in the wrong direction. President Obama gave a speech on immigration on July 1, laying out his case for bipartisan immigration reform and calling out Republicans for uniformly opposing an initiative some of them supported when it was proposed by President Bush. The only thing Arizonas law will produce is chaos: Obama was right to take particular notice of the extremism of Arizona, says The New York Times in an editorial.12 The New York Times, July 2, 2010. The Times goes on to state, Its deeply unjust immigration law isnt just an invitation to racial profiling, but also a usurpation of federal authority and a prelude to the chaos that will ensue if different states have different immigration rules. Obamas right that illegal immigration cant really be handled in a piecemeal fas hion, says The Denver Post in an editorial, but that doesnt just apply to states taking the law into their own hands. Thanks in part to Arizonas law, the already overworked federal courts that handle immigration law are about to drown in cases. For border enforcement to work, Obama needs to hire more judges. Hasty immigration politics leaves courts overwhelmed. 13 The Denver Post, July 2, 2010. Obama warned of a patchwork of immigration laws arising as states and localities go their own ways. Barack Obama says he does not approve or oppose the boycotts that some cities and groups have called for in response to the Arizona law, which makes it a crime under state law to be in the country illegally. He reaffirmed his opposition to the law, saying its the wrong approach. He has asked the Justice Department to review the law to determine whether it violates civil liberties. Obama says he will continue to push lawmakers to work on a bipartisan approach to comprehensive immigration reform. Immigration played a very important role in American history, and like I stated before, it is perhaps one of the greatest controversial issues of our present time. Yes, I will continue to feel saddened by the experiences that so many people live. My belief is that we are all created equal and we all come from the heavens above, but unfortunately the world is different for all of us, and not always are we all free to live our lives as we choose. I do not care for the drug trafficking taking place, nor do I care for the violent crimes being committed by so many immigrants. I do believe that the federal government has allowed this to happen over the years. If Americas lax immigration system would come to an end and instead enforce its immigration laws with not only consistency but also common sense, America would be a safer place for all of us. For the immigrants crossing the border, sufficient law enforcement is the only way to keep them from entering the United States. For those immigrants coming in by sea or air, we must have strict policies and we must make sure that the people working at entry points do their jobs in assessing the security needed to keep illegal migrants from entering the U.S. Airport inspectors, no matter what delays they may be encountering, must carefully examine visas before stamping their approval. They must request required documentation, regardless of the hassle it may involve. As Americans, we do not want our country to become like Africa, with so many people that it cannot provide for them. We want to have plenty of resources, and we want to live freely, as our country is The Land of the Free. End Notes Alan Gomez and Kevin Johnson, USA Today, Friday, July 30, 2010. 3A Ibid.,3A. Associated Press, July 18, 2010, 1A. Ibid., 1A Don M. Coerver and Linda B. Hall, Tangled Destinies: Latin America and the United States, (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press), 1999. Kevin Kiley, The Arizona Republic, August 3, 2010. Marcus Eli Ravage, Immigration: Opoosing Viewpoints. Viewpoint 2. (San Diego: Greenhaven Press), 1992. Ramon Bracamontes, Immigration, El Paso Times, June 18, 2010, 4A. Ibid., 4A Sam Quinones, Antonios Gun and Delfinos Dream, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press), 2007. Steve Hamm and Moira Herbst, Americas High-Tech Sweatshops, Business Week. October 12, 2009, Pages 34-39. The Denver Post, July 2, 2010. The New York Times, July 2, 2010.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Winders NT Security NT was introduced in 1993 and quickly became a popular platform for client-server environments. NT is based on 32-bit architecture so it provides many features like multi-tasking, resource sharing and high availability of resources. NT provides increased security over older operating systems like Windows 9x and UNIX. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã NT has both server and client versions. The client version of NT does not have as many features or capability. The Server version can handle 256 connections while client version can only do one. Global security management functions are not supported by client version either. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã NT gives an administrator the ability to control user accounts and groups. Domains are used to contain machines in groups. This can be used as an administrative tool to control users privileges and access to system resources and data. It can also be useful for updating and stuff like that. One machine in a domain is set as the controlling system and from that machine a security policy can be created and enforced on the entire domain. Backup domain controllers are recommended. Machines on a domain share a user database which allows a user to have a single ID and easily sign on to any machine as long as its in the domain. NT uses the ideal of trusted domains. If a user authenticates to his primary domain, he is free to access any other sub domains as long as that domain trusts the primary domain. (Pass through validation) Domain trusting allows for a user who does not have an ID on a given domain to still gain access to it as long as the user is validated on the primary domain, however, what permissions the user has is dictated by the Admin of the domain he is a guest in. Domains make it easier to control users, machines, and what goes on. It is useful in enforcing policies on groups and restricting the rights of users. Security issues are minimized in remoter applications because there is no need for someone at each site to be in charge of security and policy enforcement. One Admin can group remote sites into their individual domains and provide increased security from his desk. User accounts come in both local and Domain flavors. This means a user can be restricted to using only the local machine or any machine on the domain. NT has a guest account, recommended password protecting it.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
William Shakespeare, perhaps the greatest playwright of all time, authored a number of works consisting of sonnets, comedies, and tragedies. In his brilliant career, Shakespeare created literary works of art. What makes Shakespeare unlike any other writer of his time, is his ability to organize a realistic plot, manage themes, and develop characters within his works (Nordling). As well, Shakespeare's ability to provoke feeling and reaction to his writing is also what sets him apart from other common writers. Of his works, Hamlet is perhaps the most studied and most interesting of the collected tragedies. In this play, many question the actions of the characters and particularly the actions of Hamlet. The answer to: 'Why does Hamlet delay in avenging the death of his father?' is one that is not easy to identify. Possible conclusions include the role of others in Hamlet, Hamlet's religious nature, or even Hamlet's tragic flaw as a hero in Hamlet. It is often argued that Hamlet was written as a tragedy of the human spirit (Nighan). Others argue that it is a tragedy of destiny, or the hero. In every hero's quest for the truth, none is more apparent than that of Hamlet. This search for truth is born of the passing of young Hamlet's father. It is at the critical moment of revelation by the Ghost of Hamlet that young Hamlet is destined for revenge. Although the concept of revenge may be considered an evil justice, it is evident that the importance lay within the context of carrying out the fate. The question arises of 'Why did Hamlet not take revenge sooner upon Claudius?' The how and when of this vengeance becomes critical in the development of Hamlet the character. To fully comprehend the true essence of Hamlet as a son, a discoverer, and a destroyer, one must analyze each individual characteristic as revealed by Shakespeare (Nordling). It was not enough that Shakespeare just wrote the play, he also emphasized the character's thoughts and emotions through the soliloquies. In fact, the whole idea of drama is to feel, to an extent, what the character feels. However, in Hamlet, the use of the soliloquy offers the audience a gateway into the minds of the characters, and in this case it provides various reasons why Hamlet delays in exacting revenge. The depth of thought possessed by characters is easily measured by how effortlessly a reader can relate to what is b... ... three parts coward--I do not know Why yet I live to say, "this thing's to do", / Sith I have cause, and will, and strength, and means, / To do't...." (Shakespeare 41-46) Rational thought and compassion are what make Hamlet a hero. Unfortunately, thought and inability to act on impulse, are the factors in creating the tragedy in Hamlet. In today's society and its values, Hamlet continues to be a contribution to ideals of value and morality. This story of a man and his downfalls should be considered an asset to the better of society, and a lesson learned in compassion for other. BIBLIOGRAPHY Burton, Philip. Ã¢â¬Å"The Sole Voice.Ã¢â¬ "Character Portraits from Shakespeare." The Dial Press, New York. January 6, 2005. < http://www.freehomepages.com/hamlet/other/burton-hamlet.htm> Eliot, T.S., "Hamlet and His Problems", The Athenaeum, No. 4665, London 1919. January 6, 2005 Nighan, Raymond. Ã¢â¬Å"HAMLET AND THE DAEMONS: AN INQUIRY INTO THE NATURE OF THE GHOST AND ITS MISSION.Ã¢â¬ Shakespeare. January 6, 2005 Nordling, Carl. Ã¢â¬Å"Why does Hamlet tarry?Ã¢â¬ Shakespeare: Who wrote Hamlet and why? January 6, 2005. Shakespeare, William. Ã¢â¬Å"Hamlet.Ã¢â¬ Hamlet. January 6, 2005
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
A brilliant storyteller during the mid-twentieth century, Flannery O'Connor wrote intriguing tales of morality, ethics and religion. A Southern writer, she wrote in the Southern Gothic style, cataloging thirty-two short stories; the most well known being Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find.Ã¢â¬ Mary Flannery O'Connor was born on March 25, 1925, in Savannah, Georgia. Raised in her mother's family home in Milledgeville, Georgia, she was the only child of Regina Cline and Edward Francis O'Connor, Jr. Although little is known about Mrs. O'Connor's early childhood, in Melissa Simpson's biography on O'Connor, Simpson states that O'Connor attended St. Vincent's Grammar School in Savannah where she would rarely play with the other children and spent most her time reading by herself. After fifth, grade, O'Connor transferred; to Sacred Heart Grammar School for Girls; some say the reason for the transfer was that it was a more prestigious school than the former. She later enrolled in Peabody High School in 1938, entered an accelerated program at Georgia State Collge for Women in the summer of 1942, and in 1946 she was accepted into the Iowa Writer's Workshop at the University of Iowa (4 Simpson). According to American Decades, O'Connor earned her masters degree from the University of Iowa with six short-stories that were published in the periodical Accent (n pg Baughman). After college, O'Connor's writing career continued. During her brief career as a writer, O'Connor contracted lupus in which she ultimately died. In Short Stories for Students, Kathleen Wilson states that while OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor was writing her first novel Wise Blood, which she started while attending the prestigious Yaddo writersÃ¢â¬â¢ colony, she suffered her first attack of lupus, a chronic, ... ...GrandmotherÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor 179). The GrandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s deviousness and immorality is evident in the beginning of the story. While reading the newspaper article about the Misfit, the Grandmother brings it to BaileyÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. In Short Story Criticism, Mary Jane Schenck writes Ã¢â¬Å"For Bailey, the newspaper story is not important or meaningful, and for the Grandmother it does not represent a real threat but is part of a ploy to get her own wayÃ¢â¬ (Schenck 220). Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man is Hard to FindÃ¢â¬ begins with an innocent road trip, however, due to coercion by the Grandmother; it soon turns into a fatal nightmare. In Short Story Criticism, Martha Stephens writes Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ it is true that in a trivial sense everything that happens is the GrandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s faultÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She continues with Ã¢â¬Å"It is in the conscious of the Grandmother that we continue to experience the action of the storyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Stephens 196).
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Employee relations activities are those whose objective is to create an atmosphere of trust, respect and cooperation. The typically objective is to provide an atmosphere in which all employees can perform their jobs to the best of their abilities and creatively contribute to the organization. All Human resources decisions should by goal Ã¢â¬â directed. Consequently, employee relations activities should be designed and managed to help achieve specific objectives. Employee relations activities affect efficiency, in that potential reasons for performance problems are confronted and help is offered to remove them. When the problem is an individual employeeÃ¢â¬ s behavior, employee assistance and conflict resolution system seek constructive solutions. If the problem is the organizationÃ¢â¬ s behavior, employee management committees or other two Ã¢â¬â way communication forums can identify possible changes that will remove the problem. Much employee relations is designed to send the message that the organization is a concerned institution that will help protect, assists, and deal fairly with all it members. The typical decisions that managers face in designing employee relations programs include: Communication Ã¢â¬â How best can we convey our philosophy to employees and solicit their opinions/suggestions on work issues? Protection Ã¢â¬â Are there aspects of the workplace that threaten the wellbeing of employees? Assistance Ã¢â¬â How shall we respond to special needs of specific employees? Cooperation Ã¢â¬â To what extent should decision making and control be shared? Discipline and conflict Ã¢â¬â How shall we deal with it? An employee handbook is a necessary part of communication an employee relations program. The handbook sets out the rules and policies within which employees and managers must operate. How the organization sets wages, allocates training, and promotions opportunities, what services it provides, and what it expect from employees is discussed in the handbook. Obviously, merely writing a handbook is not enough. It must by continuously updated, publicized to employees, and supervisors must be thoroughly familiar whit it, since they are the ones who translate policy into action. Handbook provide communication in only one direction. Many organizations have formats for providing communication from employees to supervisors and managers. These can range from Ã¢â¬Å"speak Ã¢â¬â upÃ¢â¬ and open Ã¢â¬â door policies, work improvement suggestions systems, to Ã¢â¬Å"sensingÃ¢â¬ sessions, opinion surveys, or conflict resolution procedures. Unfortunately, there is evidence that there is a growing communications gap between employees and top management. Messages that managers think they are sending arenÃ¢â¬ t being received by employees. Every managers and employee wants a healthy and safe work environment. Prevention programs take many forms. They include redesigning jobs to diminish hazardous conditions, conducting, safety training programs, even offering pay bonuses for good safety records. Safety hazard: are those aspects of the work environment, which have the potential for immediate and sometimes violent harm to employee. Examples are lost of hearing, or eyesight, cuts, sprains, bruises, broken bones, burns and electric shock. Health hazard: are those aspects of the work environment that slowly and cumulatively lead to deterioration of an employeeÃ¢â¬ s health. Typical causes include physical and biological hazards, toxic and cancer Ã¢â¬â causing dusts and chemicals, and stressful working conditions. Many of the policies and programs discussed in this chapter can go a long way to prevent discipline issues from arising. Prevention should be the objective of all organizations. However, when problems arise, having procedures in place to deal with infraction can help safeguard the rights of all concerned. There are four elements to assure adherence to generally acceptable work rules of such a system.
Monday, September 16, 2019
For my essay on mise-en-scene, I will be talking about Sin City, written and directed by Frank Miller, Robert Rodriquez and Quentin Tarantino. In this film, there are many unique techniques used by the directors to portray emotions, hidden meanings and to determine mood. Sin City is a bold and brutal adaptation of the graphic novels written by Frank Miller. Mise-en-scene is a cinematic term, which refers to techniques used by directors to help construct a specific onscreen representation. It consists of the setting of the film, costume and make up, lighting, staging, and last of all, time and space. The scene that I will be analyzing would be the scene in which Marv confronts Cardinal Roark and forces him to confess, after which Marv kills him. Marv, a brute of a man, is one of the protagonists in this film. He wakes up after a one-night stand with a prostitute Ã¢â¬ËGoldieÃ¢â¬â¢ and she lies beside him dead. Marv realized that he has been framed and goes on a vengeful rampage to uncover the truth. He kills Kelvin who is a cannibal who murders and consumes people, and finds out the Kelvin was the cardinalÃ¢â¬â¢s ward. The setting of this scene is in the CardinalÃ¢â¬â¢s room where it is dark and we can barely make out the furniture present inside. Color symbolism is extreme in the entire film; the film is almost entirely inked in black and white. The directors created the film using the visually stunning black and white style of film noir to emphasize cynical and extreme attitudes and sexual motivations. Film noir is used to depict the darker aspects of modernity, and is usually set in a criminal milieu; exactly what this film needed. The narrative and existential angst that drives a male protagonist and a voluptuous femme fatale who seduces the protagonist for her own benefits are the gist of film noir, which are present in Sin City. Goldie used Marv for his huge size and brute strength to protect her, while Marv had feelings for Goldie. Her murder drives him mad and fuels his rage to find her killer. Sin City can be classified as a neo-noir film, which possesses elements of film noir, but with updated themes and visual elements that were absent in classic film noir. However, it is the color rendering in this film that is unique. The retained or added color to certain objects is an amazing technique, bringing out the emotions of the character or empathize the significance of the object. In the confrontation scene, the eyes of Cardinal Roark are painted green and it is the only other color present in that picture of black and white. The color of the eyes shown would make the audience focus on Cardinal Roark as he confess, and to be drawn to ponder on his sick thoughts and emotions. Green color may have been used to depict a sense of evil and perverse present in the Cardinal, and true to the saying Ã¢â¬Å"The eyes are the windows to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s soul. The color red is rendered many times in the strikingly monochromatic film, mainly in the form of bloodshed or love objects like the heart-shaped bed where Marv and Goldie had their one night affair. Red is meant to depict extreme violence, death, love and vulnerability in Sin City and it plays an important role in stimulating the emotions of the audience. In spite of this, red is only used when it is required and not all blood is painted red. In some scenes, the blood is left as white colored to show that it is not as significant in the film. There is a scene in the flashback during Cardinal RoarkÃ¢â¬â¢s confession, in which Goldie is fully colored from her yellow locks to her fiery red dress and the color of her skin. The idea was to illustrate how beautiful Goldie was in MarvÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes and how full of life Goldie was to Marv in the dreadful Sin City. Besides the color in the scene I have chosen, there are flashes of brilliant color at different junctions of the film. There is one scene where the prostitutes in Old Town, depicting justice served in a crude way, stain the skies red during the massacre of mercenaries. One very distinct color I would like to point out would be the Yellow BastardÃ¢â¬â¢s skin color at the last part of the film. The connotation of yellow in this case, will be to represent dirty, pungent and obnoxious, so true to Yellow BastardÃ¢â¬â¢s character that even his blood bleeds yellow. The costumes and makeup play another important element of mise-en-scene. As in the case of the dressing of the prostitute Goldie, the elegant and sexy dresses that she dons in the film help her play the part of the seductress. The blonde locks along with the blood-red lipstick she possess give the audience the vibe that she is a femme fatale. On the other hand, Marv is clothed throughout in a black trench coat with a white singlet inside, displaying his heedless of caution attitude. The actor playing Marv, Mickey Rourke is portrayed as the graying behemoth embodied underneath a ton of facial make-up to make him look grotesque and fierce. Besides that, Kelvin wears a pair of glasses to invoke the look of a creepy psychopath killer. All this costumes and makeup contribute in building the personalities of the characters in Sin City, empowering them with attributes the directors require them to have. In the lighting context for Sin City, low-key lighting is utilized throughout the film. Low-key lighting or chiaroscuro is present in the scene that I mentioned, with artificial light shone through the windows of the CardinalÃ¢â¬â¢s room. The room is supposedly pitch dark and the only light present comes from outside the window. Thus creating a dimly lit scene, which gives the audience a feel of the impending doom of Cardinal Roark. Strong shadows engulf both the Cardinal and Marv, generating tension between the both characters. MarvÃ¢â¬â¢s face is barely visible at times, only a portion shown by the lighting. I believe by making the room so dark, it forces the audience to focus on what is visible. The weak light shone on KelvinÃ¢â¬â¢s decapitated head also creates an eerie feel. At the final part of the scene whereby Marv presumably cuts Cardinal RoarkÃ¢â¬â¢s throat, the darkness and shadows conceal the gore that ensues. The low-key lighting acts to dampen the effect of the violence as the details are being obscured. Furthermore, in the flashback during the confession of the cardinal, there is a shot of Kelvin with bright lighting shown from behind him. His entire face is black due to the shadow and his glasses were the only thing white in color. The effect creates such a deviant character and literally sends chills down oneÃ¢â¬â¢s spine. On the whole, the sinister environment of Sin City is primarily submerged in low-key lighting, except in dramatic epic sequences, where the directors want the audience to see the details clearly. Another important aspect of misc-en-scene used in a film is the staging. Staging refers to the movement and placement of actors and objects. In the chosen scene, Marv breaks into Cardinal RoarkÃ¢â¬â¢s room, shows him the decapitated head of Kelvin and places it on the table. Ã¢â¬Å"The dog ate the restÃ¢â¬ , Marv tells Roark straight in his face. Marv does that to show his hostility towards Roark and to instill fear in him, but it does not seem to work as Roark just got out from his bed to examine the head. The act of Marv drawing his gun from his holster tells the audience that Marv was all ready to shoot Cardinal Roark in the head. His stance is in standing position while Roark just sat there without fleeing. This shows that Roark was ready to accept his fate. Yet, Marv did not blast his head to smithereens. He sat down across Roark to listen to his confession before murdering him. He smokes a cigarette as he listened to Roark, taking his time. All of this staging tells us that he wanted pleasure in killing the cardinal slowly. Expression on the characters is a critical part of staging and in a scene of confrontation as such, it plays a huge role. The expression on MarvÃ¢â¬â¢s face in the cardinalÃ¢â¬â¢s room remained unusually calm, without showing much rage. It creates a very tense atmosphere in the room, keeping the audience in suspense over when Marv would end RoarkÃ¢â¬â¢s life. On the other hand, Roark was almost expressionless when he confessed to Marv about his perverse deeds and till the very end when he was killed in cold blood. There was only a slight tinge of nervousness when he saw KelvinÃ¢â¬â¢s head. This scene illustrates vividly about a man who knows he is about to meet his doom and a man who is determined to take the life of another. It is the part where dark truth is revealed. Speech used is another element of mise-en-scene, not only can it invoke thoughts in the audience, it can bring out the true nature of the character. The rampaging Marv finally achieves his maniacal madman majesty when he answers Cardinal RoarkÃ¢â¬â¢s final question of whether killing him would satisfy him, Marv answers Ã¢â¬Å"The killing? No, no satisfaction. Everything up to the killing, itÃ¢â¬â¢d be gas. Ã¢â¬ From that, we find out that although the diabolical priest and his ward deserve to die, Marv in fact enjoys torturing people and the speech alone reveals the sadistic nature in him. The camera is focused all the time on the closed-up faces of Marv and Roark when either one is speaking. In cinematography, facing the camera is the position with the most intimacy as the character is looking in our direction and we are able to see the expressions on his face, engaging our attention. Hence in a scene like this, the closed-up face positioning would be best. Close ups give the audience time to judge a character and create mood and tension between the two characters present. In the scene, I realize that the camera points upward towards Marc, giving the audience the perception that he is the powerful and dominating character now. The camera is high angled when focused on Roark, the cannibalistic cardinal, making him seem powerless and pitiful. The computer-generated monochromatic landscape of Sin City is both elegant and vivid. Presence of retro sets and vintage cars make the city seem like a city decades again, except when one of the thugs in the film drives a Ferrari from the modern world. This means that it could be a retro-modern world or it could be set today, just that the city is still in the 40s era. The costumes donned by the characters are weird for modern day fashion, from trench coats to stripper wear. It is perhaps pulp noir imagination and visualization of a world found only in graphic novels. The use of shallow depth of field in the scene I choose, allowed the subject to be isolated from the background. It serves to direct the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s gaze upon the expressions of the two characters. Depth is also created by lighting, which reveals or hides the parts, which the director want the audience to see. The scene is also set up in a small room to confine the background and focus on the characters. In this essay, I have analyzed how the directors used cinematographic elements of mise-en-scene to convey meaning and stimulate response in the audience in the particular scene. Mise-en-scene is extremely important in filmmaking and has to be incorporated in every film, how well the individual or combined mise-en-scene techniques are used will help create the desired meanings in each scene.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Amber Clayton Weber and SimmelÃ¢â¬â¢s Take on Power and Conflict Jon Witt, explaining Max WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s theory on resources of power, was not surprised at the fact that students do not use the party resource to fight for better tuition costs, because of the individualistic society of the United States. This fits into conflict theory because the school would be considered a rational-legal authority. The students Ã¢â¬Å"give inÃ¢â¬ to the rules and perceived rights of the school to raise tuition costs. As Jon Witt said Ã¢â¬Å"there are reasonsÃ¢â¬ ¦ for why people should do what they are told to do. If the school did not charge the students money then they would not be able to pay the teachers and professors to educate them. This idea fits into the broader theory because WittÃ¢â¬â¢s claim about the US being individualistic is not expanded in this chapter, but it is in previous ones. In chapter 4, Witt mentioned Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦we combine extreme interdependence (due to specializ ation) with a strong sense of individualism (tied to a weak collective conscience). We depend on each other more than ever, but we realize it less. In an article by Margaret Foster, she asks 70 college presidents Ã¢â¬Å"can you school continue to attract students at its current rate of tuition growth? Ã¢â¬ and 80% said yes. This tells me that students are simply following the rational-legal authority of the bureaucratic schools, choosing to accept the higher charges and taking out higher loans. The students most likely do this because they are too weak as individuals to do anything about it or they assume the school leaders are making these decisions because they have no other choice (bad economy, budget cuts, ect).George Ritzer claims that the unpredictability of human error has led to a desire for greater control and the replacement of human with nonhuman technology. The idea of companies (bureaucracies) replacing humans with technology to ensure efficiency fits into WeberÃ¢â¬ â¢s theory of formal rationality. As Ritzer explains Ã¢â¬Å"[Fast-food chains have] employed all the rational principles pioneered by the bureaucracy and is part of the bureaucratic system because huge conglomerates now own many of the fast-food chains.McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s utilized bureaucratic principles and combined them with others, and the outcome is the process of McDonaldization. Ã¢â¬ Ritzer backs his claim up with multiple examples and evidence. One of which being the replacement of human communication over the telephone. Companies force people to go through a string of Ã¢â¬Å"press 1 for yes or 2 for noÃ¢â¬ s before they even talk to a real person. In some cases, the person doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t speak to a real person at all. Although annoying, people just excuse it away as a consequence of living in our technological world. This idea is expanded in an article by Karen Korzep.She outlines the advantages and problems with TeleHealth (medical technology) and the resistance among p eople to a total technological take-over. She explains in her conclusion that Ã¢â¬Å"just because the technology exists, does not mean that everyone will be accepting to itÃ¢â¬ ¦ [however] [i]n my opinion, it will be at least one more decade before we see this technology take over and really have an effect on jobs. Ã¢â¬ Therefore, even though people may have resistance to the technology and worry that it will affect jobs negatively, the technology will still, most likely, take over in time.William J. Staudenmeier, Jr. claims in his chapter about Georg SimmelÃ¢â¬â¢s theories on social drinking that when a member of the group buys a round of drinks, the others would not simply pay them money, because Ã¢â¬Å"treatingÃ¢â¬ ¦ has to do with personal relationships, and it is not strictly an economic exchange. Ã¢â¬ This idea fits into conflict theory because the taverns are becoming more and more bureaucratic with rules and regulations that the consumers must follow or face the co nsequences (kicked out or banned for fighting or over drinking).Instead of backing his claim up with evidence, Staudenmeier expands on the idea by saying Ã¢â¬Å"the Ã¢â¬Ësurplus of satisfactionÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¦ comes from the value of giving and receiving in a group in which such actions and the thought of such actions make us feel good and make us feel a part of the group. This is outside the narrow cash nexus of economic exchange because what is calculated here is not mere profit and loss. Ã¢â¬ The issue of teenage pregnancy and how it fits into this theory is best addressed in an article by Linda Arms Gilbert.She outlined a study done by the Franklin Heights Federal Housing Project in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. The Murfreesboro Housing Authority partnered with the police department to help rid the projects from drug-related behaviors by developing positive relationships with the Franklin Heights families. The police department made over 500 contacts, creating a positive working relationship between the families and law enforcement as well as informed residents willing to provide tips against drug-related behaviors.The Parks and Recreation Department started an after-school program for 8-13-year old students, which included educational leisurely activities and an after-school tutoring program. A Parents as Teachers Program was started that allowed teen mothers to connect with their children. The program Ã¢â¬Å"held group meetings to help young parents understand the emotional, physical cognitive needs of their young children and to form a community of teen mothers who could offer support to each other. In the end Ã¢â¬Å"Franklin Heights has taught an entire city about the importance of collaboration and has shown what can be accomplished when individuals and agencies choose to look beyond the borders of their own job descriptions and departments to see the needs of families within that community. Ã¢â¬ The point is that, even in a bureaucratic society whe re, typically, rational-legal authority does not think about the well-being of their Ã¢â¬Å"workersÃ¢â¬ (in this case, the people who require government assistance), there can be an authority who thinks beyond what is efficient and profitable and helps the issue of teenage pregnancy, drug use, and violence. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- [ 1 ]. John Witt, The Big Picture: A Sociology Primer (New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. , 2007) p 89 [ 2 ]. Witt, p 86 [ 3 ]. Witt, 59 [ 4 ]. FOSTER, MARGARET. Ã¢â¬Å"Sticker Shock. Ã¢â¬ American Scholar 82. 1 (2013): 120. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. [ 5 ]. George Ritzer, Ã¢â¬Å"The Weberian Theory of Rationalization and the McDonaldization of Contemporary SocietyÃ¢â¬ , Peter Kivisto, ed. , Illuminating Social Life: Classical and Contemporary Theory Revisited, 4th ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 2008), p 52 [ 6 ].Ritzer, p 45 [ 7 ]. Ritzer, p 54 [ 8 ]. Korzep, Karen. Ã¢â¬Å"The Future Of Technology And The Effect It May Have On Replacing Human Jobs. Ã¢â¬ Technology & Health Care 18. 4/5 (2010): 353-358. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. [ 9 ]. Korzep, p 357 [ 10 ]. William Staudenmeier, Jr. , Ã¢â¬Å"Alcohol-Related Windows on Simmel's Social World,Ã¢â¬ Kivisto, 109 [ 11 ]. Staudenmeier, Jr. , p 110 [ 12 ]. Gilbert, Linda Arms. Ã¢â¬Å"The Teen Pregnancy Dilemma: A Different Solution. Ã¢â¬ Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin 73. 3 (2007): 5-8. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. p 3 [ 13 ]. Gilbert, p 3
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Some people believe the history of corrections shows continuous movement toward more humane treatment of prisoners as society has progressed. In the beginning punishments for prisoners were considered a corporal punishment which was whipping, beheading, dismembering, torture or even death. There was fines, dispersion of property were common which was more common than the physical torture. Execution was the economic and corporal punishment as the estate was forfeited. The economic and physical sanctions have given way of imprisonment less depreciation in the liberty of parole and probation. When there are thousands of crimes incarcerated throughout the United States, the ethical treatment of prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s rights must be analyzed. Throughout the years many modifications have been made to accommodate inmates and preserve their basic human rights. Have we as a society done enough regarding the ethical treatment of prisoners or have we made their lives in prison too easy that it is no longer a punishment for them? There are many people in the United States who have strong feelings of what is right and wrong and fall on both sides of this question. Utilitarianism is the belief that moral rules should be choices made by a society to promote the happiness of its members Mosser (2010). Through the utilitarian view the argument could be made that these prisoners are being treated to good and not good enough. Utilitarianism gives an understandable, theoretical foundation for moral decision making. Prior to coming to a decision upon a course of action, the utilitarian is asked to consider its effects on the entire population over an infinite period of time Mosser (2010). One problem with this method of decision-making is that many people might not agree with the premise that maximization of happiness should be the basis for morality. An example of this is an eye for an eye; if you kill someone in my family then I will have your life. In earlier history like the cowboy era this is how criminals were treated. Now, this is no longer accepted in our society. Our societyÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical values have changed. For hundreds of years, prisoners had no rights. That is until 1909 when the Georgia Supreme Court ruled that although convicts have lost their freedom; they do have civil rights Davenport (2009). During this era, institutions were legally immune in state and federal courts from lawsuits, also called the hands-off doctrine, wardens ran their facilities as they felt necessary and were not held accountable for the conditions that existed in their facility Davenport (2009). Prisoners were beaten regularly and denied the basics such as food, medical care, and protection from staff or other inmates. These types of incidents continued for many of years. In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s several legal avenues opened for prisoners. Prisoners would now have the ability to have their grievances heard in state and federal courts. One of the major changes that enabled this is the cruel and unusual punishment clause of the Eighth Amendment; another is the civil rights provisions of Section 1983 of Title 42 of the U. S. Code Davenport (2009). The Eighth Amendment asserts that excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted Davenport (2009). The cruel and unusual punishment clause was not intended for prisoners; rather the focus was on punishment outside the law. The clause also did not apply to state prisoners. The Supreme Court heard very few cases in this era. In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, the Supreme Court began to incorporate the Bill of Rights to state laws. This meant the cruel and unusual punishment clause now included prisons and prisoners. PrisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s then began to file suits to change the way prisons operated, citing cruel and unusual punishment, inadequate healthcare, demanding more access to courts and due process. People who are employed in the justice system have to exhibit strength of mind and body to prove they are worthy to be in charge of those who may be a danger to society. This fact alone places these individuals in a position of power, and without a personal and professional code of ethics to live by; this power could be taken out of context. This could lead to damage within the system, as well as out on the street. For these people must make moral decisions everyday. A personal set of ethics can often be hard to define. Ethics are not on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mind as they make various choices throughout the day. When a person sub-consciously makes one judgment or another, they are not aware that ethics plays a role in the decisions that are made. In examining ethical egoism and utilitarianism my personal view is definitely closer to utilitarianism than ethical egoism. Utilitarianism is an exceedingly, even extremely demanding moral view for most people. If we have a duty to always bring about the best outcome, than any time we can increase the well-being of others, we have a moral duty to do so. I believe it is morally better to help the most people at a time than to serve the self interest of one person. The thousands of crimes incarcerated throughout the United States had their day in court and are now housed in a penal institution to serve out their sentence. As a society we have passed ethical laws to protect the prisoners against harm from others and to make sure they are treated with respect. Through the eyes of utilitarianism arguments are made that these prisoners are being treated to good by some and not good enough by others. Regardless of which theories or ethical beliefs a person chooses to believe in they must follow the law or they could end up as a prisoner in the United States. Those in the justice system sworn to protect prisoners can not choose to follow their own beliefs but they must follow the laws and regulation set forth before them. Ethics as a form of intellectual inquiry does not provide answers to moral questions. People with beliefs about right and wrong do. Societies are built upon those beliefs. As we have analyzed the ethical treatment of prisoners with theories of ethics we can argue that societyÃ¢â¬â¢s views of right and wrong coincide with reality, are representative of the objective moral order, and encompass the will of the people with regards to their treatment. Davenport, A. U. (2009). Basic criminal law: the constitution, procedure, and crimes (2nd Ed. ). Upper Saddle River: Pearson
Friday, September 13, 2019
Our impact on the environment - Essay Example ties includes the element of pollution, which is currently a major global threat that has been increasing in a dramatic rate due to the increase of industrialization and other human activities that involve use of energy. This essay is going to focus on the impacts of human activities on the environment, analyze how different sources of energy affect the environment as well recommend usage of the most sustainable and friendly sources of energy. Carried out studies have proven that one of the major factors contributing to the high levels of pollution to the environment is the type of sources of energy that human beings use in fueling their industrial activities (Jaccard 63). Most of these sources of energies used in almost all countries are nonrenewable and highly unsustainable, a factor that have made them a chief threat to the environment (Jaccard 65). However, some sources are known to have more adverse effects to the environment than others with oil, coal and natural gas being the main sources that environmentalists blame much for the high level of pollution in the modern world. Statistics show that oil is the most common source of energy with oil being used to fuel over 80% of all the activities undertaken on daily basis such as in factories, cooking and for transport. However, combustion of oil leads to emission of greenhouse gases that have detrimental effects to the environment (Curley 95). The main constituents of products released after burning oil, natural gas and coal are carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide that have significantly contributed to global warming or climate change. In addition, combusted fossil fuels lead to formation of other harmful gases which ends up forming acids such as carbonic acids and sulfuric acid. Carbon dioxide and suphurous gaseous produces once fossils are combusted combine with moisture or rain in the atmosphere to form acidic rainfall. Acidic rains are a major threat to plant and fish health once they get on to the ground.
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Analyze white lies - Essay Example Her classmates assume that she Is white, as the classmate does when she holds her hand in an act of unity. she is though sad but optimistic in life. (Trethewey, Natasha) Trethewey has used color imagery in the poem constantly, especially in the first stanza. The poet mentions six colors, which are all different, and all describing the lies. "light-bright, near-white, high-yellow, red-boned, white, and black." It is an African American speaker who could lie frequently, though the lies did not mean anything much. She would lie about where she lived, and where she bought her clothes, "uptown ..home made dresses came out the window of Maison blande,"but would also lie about being African American. She did pass easily for being a white. It's actually really sad the way she describes lying about her skin color. She writes, "I could even keep quiet, quiet as kept, like the time a white girl said "squeezing my hand, Now we have three of us in this class." It is sad because she is lying to be part of the group. She writes "squeezing my hand," brings the sense that she only lied because she was amazed by the way the girl was behaving as a good friend. The fir st stanza does describe her as a light skinned for an African American.
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
How long-lasting parental conflict in a marriage can influence children while growing up in the home - Essay Example How long-lasting parental conflict in a marriage can influence children while growing up in the home? Child development is a hypothetical growth which depends on parents' sensitive behabiours that necessitates for the growing up of the child. Child development with a concentration upon psychological development seems to deny maturational, i.e., physical, psychological, motor, and neurological. In this research paper argued that child development and psychological processes in children are likely to be highly affected by the long-lasting parental conflict in a marriage. Various levels of analysis (e.g., economic, political, institutional, educational) of the effects of the long-lasting parental conflict in a marriage on adults and children in families. The specific gap addressed in this paper is to further the conceptualization of the psychological, sociological, and familial processes in children that may be affected by the long-lasting parental conflict in a marriage in families. A related goal is to place these conceptualizations in terms of a broader framework for understanding th e complexity of the processes underlying the impact of the conflict. Many parents assume that as long as their voices are children are not raised, their children will remain unaware of the conflict at hand. The general idea known as "child development" originated a generation ago as an interdisciplinary movement, no as a discipline in itself. ... Over the past several decades, a growing body of research has focused on the conflict in the family and how those conflicts affect children. Henry W. Maier, decided that any theory to be included in his book Three Theories of Child Development had to deal with personality development as a continuous and sequential process, starting with child's status as an infant and dealing with each subsequent stage of psychological growth: early childhood, childhood, and adolescence. Much of the more work has been devoted to parent behaviour as the antecedent and to child behabiour as the consequent. While we are nothing the impact of the paternal attitude on the child it well for us to consider the view of the child has of his parents several studies indicate that children have definite ideas about their relationships with their parents. Freudian theory has it that the relationship of the child to his parent of the opposite sex is critical in the development of his personality. Evidently, too, t he strength of the mother or father plays an important part. The study will examine the differential effects of the parents on the child's development. Mother-father relationships have an almost direct bearing on the child. (Hoffman, & Lippitt, 1960). 3. The long-lasting marital conflict's Psychological Hypothesis As the study illustrates, the long-lasting marital conflict can affect children's development. At first, mother entered into the infant's with equal influence, as the mother's temporary substitute or as some one with some nurturing purpose- or as a deterrent to his nurture. As the infant gains trust in his parents, his environment and his way of life, he starts to discover that